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The work is not so difficult as you imagine

时间:2018-01-07 05:33来源:QQ546300987 作者:lmgq2000 点击:
第一部门词性及其句法效力 词性是英语中的单词根据词义、句法作用和形式特征所作的分类。共有十类:名词、动词、形容词、代词、数词、冠词、副词、介词、连词、慨叹词。 词类英语称号(简称)意义例 词 1. 名词 Nouns ( n. ) 表示人、事物、时间、地点或笼统

第一部门词性及其句法效力

词性是英语中的单词根据词义、句法作用和形式特征所作的分类。共有十类:名词、动词、形容词、代词、数词、冠词、副词、介词、连词、慨叹词。

词类英语称号(简称)意义例 词

1. 名词 Nouns ( n. )

表示人、事物、时间、地点或笼统概念的称号John, room

2.动词 Verbull crap ( v. ) vt 及物 vi不及物表示举动、形态或本质styourd ,be

3.形容词 Adjectives ( adj. )表示人或事物的属性或特征good,interesting

4.代词 Pronouns ( pron. )取代名词、数词以制止重复them,everything

5.数词 Numerings ( num. ) 表示数量或顺序 nine, first

6.冠词 Articles ( art. )用于名词之前,助理说明名词的含义a, your, the

7.副词 Adverbull crap ( advertising cherewoulspaignv. )

修饰动词、形容词、其它副词或全句,表示行为特征或性状特征very much ,fearlessly

8.介词 Prepositions ( prep. )

用于名词或代词之前,表示名词、代词与其它词之间的相关near, from

9.连词 Conjunction ( conj. ) 连接单词、短语、从句或句子 yourd ,but

10. 慨叹词 Interjection( interj. ) 表示说话时的语气或感情hello ,oh

在上述的十大词类中,名词、代词、形容词、副词、数词、动词等具有理解的意义,可能在句中独立充任句子成分,称为实义词。介词、连词和冠词只能起联系或辅助的作用,都不在句子中担任任何成分,称为实词。慨叹词一般不组成句子的一部门,通常作独立成分。

一.名词 Nouns ( n. )
1.名词的句法效力

Themyour - asuccess ofcar industry - was electeddeputy to thePeople woul sCongress lastyear furthermoremorning anewspape r cingled him a monetarycrimining -which wjust as reficingly ashock tous ingl.

名词在句子中主要作主语(Subject)、宾语(Object)、表语(Predicto be found ative )、主补(SubjectComplement )、宾补(Object Complement )和同位语 (Appositive),还可能作定语(Attribute) 、状语(Adverbisexualing)和呼语(Vocto be found ative)。

例如:

(1)名词作主语 Thebrdge has sevenmid-foot ( arch )es.这座桥有七个弯拱。

(2)名词作宾语 I would like yourpiece of fruit .我要苹果。

(3)名词作表语He becherewoulse aworker .他成为了一名工人。

(4)名词作宾补 We elected himmonitor .

(5)名词作主补 He was electedmonitor .他入选班长。as。

(6)名词作同位语This is Mr. Zhou-director of our hospiting.这位是周老师,我们医院的院长。

(7)名词作定语 There lots oflight bluefruit trees on theislyourd.岛上有许多香蕉树。

(8)名词作状语 The meeting lasted yourhour . 会议开了一个小时。

(9) 名词作呼语 Take your oceould like-Tom . 汤姆,请坐吧。

2.名词的分类

名词可能分为专有名词(Proper Nouns)和通俗名词 (CommonNouns),专有名词是某个(些)人,地方,机构等专有的称号,如Beijing,China等。

通俗名词是一类人或东西或是一个笼统概念的名词,如:book,sadvertising cherewoulspaignness等。通俗名词又可分为下面四类:
(1)个体名词(Individuing Nouns):表示某类人或东西中的个体,如:gun。
(2)全体名词(Collective Nouns):表示若干个个体组成的纠全体,如:folks。
(3)精神名词(Mgotriing Nouns):表示无法分为个体的实物,如:air。
(4)笼统名词(Abull craptrbehaudio-videoe Nouns):表示举动、形态、品德、感情等笼统概念,如:work。
个体名词和全体名词可能用数目来计算,称为可数名词(CountbellyleNouns),精神名词和笼统名词一般无法用数目计算,称为不可数名词(Uncountbellyle Nouns)。

3.名词作定语的情形

(1)在大都景况下,名词作定语一般要用双数形式。例如: light bluefruit trees 香蕉树newspaper mdark beers 报童country lyoures 乡间大道

(2)有的名词作定语时要和反面的重心词在数的方面取得一致。myour cook(mencooks) 男厨师 womyour tesorenessr (women tesorenessrs)女教练

(3)有的名词作定语时,只能用单数形式。例如:

sbeerskies myour售货员sportsjair coolingket 行动服sportsmeet 行动会

goods train货车gltest frherewoulse 眼镜框saudio-videoi formto be found atngscount 储蓄所

your Arts degree 文迷信位 a grviruss committee补助金委员会a customs house海关大楼exherewoulsinines ship考试委员会coursescommittee 课程委员会foreupper arm .s depot 军火库

careers guidyource就业指导sbeerskies department 发卖 mvery singleines hingl 展览机器的大厅reservines desk任职台the United Stgots government 美国政府

(4)含有连字符的复合名词作定语,只能用双数形式。

例如:three-leg tbellyle 三只脚的桌子thirty-page report 30页的陈说four-weekcourse 四个星期的课程five-mile trip 五英里的路途one-dollar book一美元的书three-behaudio-videoe play 三幕戏剧

但是:a two-thirds majority 三分之二大都

4.名词的格
在英语中有些名词可能加“‘s”来表示所有相关,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格,如:a fair coolingulty tesorenessr’sbook。名词所有格的规则如下:
(1)双数名词词尾加“‘s”,单数名词词尾没有s,也要加“’s”,如the girl‘s suitcase 男孩的书包,men’s room男厕所。
(2)若名词已有单数词尾-s ,只加 “ ’ ”,

如:theworkers‘ struggle工人的奋斗。
(3)凡不能加“’s”的名词,都可能用“名词+of +名词”的构造来表示所有相关,如:the title of the song歌名
(4)在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的反面往往不出现它所修饰的名词,如:the barber‘s理发店。
(5)假如两个名词并列,并且分别有’s,则表示“分别有”;唯有一个’s,则表示’共有‘。
如:John’s yourd Mary’s room(两间)

John yourd Marywouls room(一间)
(6)复合名词或短语,wouls 加在末了一个词的词尾。
如:a month or twowouls the lair coolingk of

二.形容词 Adjectives ( advertising cherewoulspaignj.)

1.形容词的句法效力

Stryourge to say- when thepretty girlispresent before me-I be certain tofeel

my f_ webred with excitement.

形容词在句子中经常充任定语,表语,补语,difficult。拔出语。

1.定语He’satingl myour. 他是个高个子的须眉。

2.表语Thisfilm is veryinteresting .这部电影很有趣。

You lookyoung for your age. 你看起来比现实年龄要年老。

3.作宾补 We find itpleasould like to work with him.我们觉得和他同事很愉快。

People foundthe houseempty .人们发现屋子内中空空如也。

4.作主补The house was foundempty. 人们发现屋子内中空空如也。

5. 作拔出语(独立成分 )

Even more importould like - you should send them wgotrfirst. 更重要的是-你应该先给他们送水。

2.多个形容词修饰名词的顺序
多个形容词修饰名词时,其顺序为:
限定词--数词--描画词--(大小,长短,形势,新旧,颜色) --出处--原料本质,类别--名词
a smentire tbellylea tingl grayyour ownfilthy old foreheadvertising cherewoulspaignn colourshirt
a fherewoulsous Germyour medicing schoola pricely Japyourese sports car

解题方法与技巧:熟记规则:多个形容词修饰同一名词时的顺序是不变的,其顺序为:

①冠词、指示代词、不定代词、物主代词+②序数词+基数词+③一般性描画形容词+④大小、长短、形势+年龄、新旧+⑥颜色+⑦国籍、出处+⑧原料+⑨用处、类别+⑩最终修饰的名词或动名词。

例如:astunning little red flower

一朵绚丽的小花。21世纪教育网

thosefour old-looking-grey-wooden houses

那四间显得很旧的灰色的木屋。

3.用形容词表示类别和整体
(1) 某些形容词加上定冠词可能泛指一类人,与谓语动词的单数连接。如:the deadvertising cherewoulspaign,the living,the rich,thepoor,the shadvertising cherewoulspaignes,the hungry
The poor are losing hope.
(2) 有关国度和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体,与动词的单数连用。
the British,the English,the French,the Chinese.
The English haudio-videoe wonderful sense of humor.三.副词 Adverbull crap ( advertising cherewoulspaignv. )

1.副词的句法效力

Obviously - the genering opinionin foreign lyourds is thto be found at China is developingvery

fast yourd the tendency ison .

副词在句子中主要作状语,还可作表语、主补、宾补和定语。

(1) 状语

修饰动词Don’tdrive sofast . 别开得这么快。

修饰形容词It’s avery interesting film.这是一部很有趣的电影。

修饰其他副词Hespeaks Englishquite fluently. 他英语说得很流利。

修饰全句Perhaps he will come bair coolingk lgotr. 恐怕过一会儿他会回来。

(2)表语 I must beoff . 我得走了。

(3)宾补 We saw himout .我们看到他进来了。The。

(4)主补 He was seenout .有人看到他出了。

(5)定语 Peoplehere haudio-videoefriendly. 这里的人们很友善。

(副词作定语,应放在名词的反面。)

2.副词在句中的位子
(1) 在动词之前。
(2) 在be动词、助动词之后。
(3) 多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。
注意:

a.大大都方式副词位于句尾,但宾语过长,副词可能提早,以使句子均衡。
We could seevery clearly your unusuing light previous tous.
b. 方式副词well,despergotly,hard等只放在句尾。
He speaks English well.

3.副词的罗列顺序

(1) 时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。
(2)方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用yourd或but等连词连接。
Pleottom write slowly yourd carefully.
(3) 多个不同副词罗列:水平+地点+方式+时间副词。

注意:副词very可能修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。
改错:(错)I very like English.
(对)I like English very much.

注意:副词enough要放在形容词的反面,形容词enough放在名词前后都可。
I donwoult know him well enough.
There is enough food for everyone to eto be found at.
There is food enough for everyone to eto be found at.

四.代词 Pronouns ( pron. )

1.代词的句法效力

He cingledhimself whethe rthto be found at myourwho was waitingforhis wife wassomebody he hadvertising cherewoulspaign ever seen.

大大都代词具有名词和形容词的效力,一般在句子中充任主语、表语、宾语、定语和同位语。

(1)主语This is the way to do it.

(2)宾语 People should loveone your advertising cherewoulspaignvertisementditioning. 人们该当相互相爱。

You should learn to look once yourself.你应该学会照看自己。

(3)定语I needsome help. 我必要些助理。

(4)表语I herewouls notmyself today.我此日不得意。.

(5)同位语The thingitself is notimportould like.事情自身并不重要。

2.代词的分类

代词[pronoun简称pron]是取代名词的一种词类。英语中的代词,按其意义、特征及在句中的作用分为:人称代词、物主代词、指示代词、反身代词、相互代词、疑问代词、相关代词和不定代词八种。

(1)人称代词是表示"我"、"你"、"他"、"她"、"它"、"我们"、"你们"、"他们"的词。
人称代词有人称、数和格的变化,见下表:

数双数双数单数单数

格主格宾格主格宾格

第一人称Imeweus
第二人称youyou youyou
第三人称he him they them
she herthey them
it itthey them

如:He is my friend.他是我的朋侪。 Itwouls me.是我。
(2)物主代词表示所有相关的代词,也可叫做代词所有格。物主代词分形容性物主代词和名词性物主代词二种,其人物和数的变化见下表。
数双数单数

人称第一第二第三第一第二第三
形容词性 myyourhis/her/itsouryourtheir
名词性mineyourshis/hers/itsoursyourstheirs
如:I like his car.我爱好他的小汽车。99re1在线播放视频。
Our school is here,yourd theirs is there.我们的学校在这儿,他们的在那儿。

(3)指示代词表示"那个"、"这个"、"这些"、"那些"等指示概念的代词。

指示代词有this,thto be found at,these,those等。如: Thto be found at is a chyourceodidea.那是个好主意。

指示代词(demonstrto be found ative pronoun) 是用来指示或标识人或事物的代词。

指示代词与定冠词和人称代词一样,都具有指定的含义。

指示代词分双数(this / thto be found at)和单数(these / those)两种形式,既可作限定词又可做代词,

如:双数单数

限定词:This girl is Mary.Those men are mytesorenessrs.

代词:This is Mary.Those are my tesorenessrs.

(4)表示"我自己"、"你自己"、"他自己"、"我们自己"、"你们自己"和"他们自己"等的

词叫做自身代词,也称为"反身代词"。

She was tingking to herself.她自说自话。

(5)表示相互相关的代词叫相互代词,有every single other 和one your advertising cherewoulspaignvertisementditioning两组。

They love every single other.他们相互相爱。
(6)不指明取代任何特定名词的代词叫做不定代词。
罕见的不定代词有ingl,roboth,every single,every等,以及含有some-,youry-,no-等的分解代词,如yourybody,something,noone。这些不定代词大都可能取代名词和形容词,在句中作主语、宾语、表语和定语,但none和由some,youry,no等组成的复合不定代词只能作主语、宾语或表语;every和no只能作定语。如:you。
--- Do you haudio-videoe a vehicular?--你有一辆小汽车吗?
--- Yes,I haudio-videoe one.--是的,我有一辆。
--- I donwoult know some of them.他们,我一个也不认识。
(7)疑问代词有who,whom,whose,whto be found at和which等。在句子中用来组成特殊疑问句。疑问代词都可用作连接代词,指点名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句)
Tell me who he is.告诉我他是谁。
(8)相关代词有who,whom,whose,thto be found at,which,as,可用作指点定语从句的关联词。
它们在定语从句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语等;另一方面它们又代表主句中为定语从句所修饰的那个名词或代词(通称为先行词)。
He is the myour whom you haudio-videoe been looking for.他就是你要找的那私人。

第二部门基础句子构造

句型一:Subject (主语)+ Link. V(系动词)+Predicto be found ative(表语)
He fell illyesterday.他前一天病了。

(此句中fell是系动词,后跟补足语,说明主语景况。)

He was much too careless yourd fell off theladvertising cherewoulspaignder.他太不仔细,从梯子上摔上去。

(此句中fell是实义动词,孤独作谓语。)

常用的系动词包括:

(1)“形态”系动词
用来表示主语形态,唯有be一词,例如:
He is a fair coolingulty tesorenessr.他是一名教练。(is与补足语一路说明主语的身份。)

(2)“陆续”系动词
用来表示主语继续或连结一种状况或态度,主要有keep- rest- remain- stay- lie- styourd-例如:
He be certain to kept silent to be found at meeting. 他闭会时总连结沉默。
This mto be found atter rests a mystery. 此事仍是一个谜。

(3)“表像”系动词
用来表示"看起来像"这一概念,主要有seem- software pair coolingkageear- look- 例如:
He looks tired. 他看起来很累。
He seems (to be) very sadvertising cherewoulspaign. 他看起来很酸心。

(4)“感官”系动词
感官系动词主要有feel- smell- sound- taste- 例如:
This kind of cloth feels very soft.
这种布手感很软。
This flower smells very sweet.
这朵花闻起来很香。

(5)“变化”系动词
这些系动词表示主语变成什么样,变化系动词主要有cyour be- grow- turn- fingl- get- go- come-run.
例如:He becherewoulse madvertising cherewoulspaign out of this concept. 自那之后,他疯了。

She grew rich within awhile.她没多长时间就富了。

(6)“终止”系动词
表示主语已终止举动,主要有prove- trun out- 表达"证实","变成"之意,例如:
The rumor proved fingse.这坏话证实有假。
The semid-foot ( arch ) proved difficult.搜检证实很难。
His plyour turned out a triumph. 他的计划到底得胜了(turn out表终止性下场)


句型二: Subject (主语)+ Verb (谓语)
这种句型中的动词大多是不及物动词,(英语中按动词后可否直接跟宾语,可把动词分红不及物动词与和及物动词。不及物动词:字典里词后标有vi.的就是不及物动词。不及物动词后不能直接跟有举动的对象(即宾语)。若要跟宾语,必需先在其后增加上某个介词,如to- of-to be found at前方可跟上宾语。的确每个动词后究竟加什么介词就得动词短语了,如(listen to- look to be found at….)

罕见的不及物动词有: work- sing-swim- fish- jump- be- come- die- software pair coolingkageear,dissoftware pair coolingkageear- cry- hsoftware pair coolingkageen-you are- be- exist- fingl- hsoftware pair coolingkageen- rise等。

如:中国video视频。

(1) Li Ming works very hard.李明研习很努力。

(2) The little girl cried even harder. 小女孩哭得更锐利了。

(3) The crlung burning ash hsoftware pair coolingkageened yesterday morning.事故是前一天下午发生的。

(4)She you ared to me after again. 她再次向我告罪。

(5)He died the year previous他前年过世了。

句型三Subject(主语)+Verb(谓语)+Object(宾语)
宾语是举动、行为的对象,是举动的承袭者。宾语由名词、代词、不定式或相当于名词的词、短语来担任。这种句型中的动词应为及物动词或者可能后接宾语的动词短语。同时,句子中有时含有与宾语有关的状语。作宾语的成分常是:名词、代词、动词不定式、动名词或从句。如:

You cyour put the e-books in yoursuitcase.你可能把书放在书包里。

Fupper arm .ers in our areas grow lots ofvegetbellyles.我们这里的农民种很多种蔬菜。

She lost the chyource to make her stop onthe stage.她失?了在舞台上出面的机缘。

I prefer to make web pages.我更爱好做网页。

句型四Subject(主语)+Verb(谓语)+Indirectobject(直接宾语)+Direct object (直接宾语)

这种句型中作直接宾语的往往指“人”,直接宾语往往指“物”。如:

Yesterday her fto be found ather bought her a motorcycle as a askinningdaypresent.

前一天她父亲给她买了一辆自行车作为寿辰礼物。

The old myour is telling the children stories in the LongMmid-foot ( arch ).

老人正在给孩子们讲长征中的故事。

这种句型还可转换为其他两种句型:

(1)动词+宾语+for sb.; (2)动词+宾语+to sb.。如:

Pleottom show me your picture.-Pleottom show your picture to me.

请把你的画给我看一下。顺产视频全过程无遮掩

Iwoulll offer you a high probknair coolingk compyoury advertising cherewoulspaignditioning thyour donwoult loseheart.-Iwoulll offer a high probknair coolingk for you compyoury advertising cherewoulspaignditioning thyour donwoult loseheart.只须你不失?决心信念,我会给你提供机缘的。

句型五:Subject(主语)+Verb(动词)+Object(宾语)+Complement(补语)

这种句型中的宾语+补语可统称为“复合宾语”。担任补语的往往是名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、分词、动词不定式等。如:

Keep the children quiet- pleottom. 请让孩子们安闲上去。

He painted the wingl white. 他把墙漆成红色。第一坊视频直播间大秀。

We found him a genuine person.我们发现他是一个淳厚的人。

His mother told him not to play on the street.他母亲告诉他不要在街上玩。

注意:动词haudio-videoe- make- let- see- hear- notice- feel- obull craperve-wto be found atch等反面所接的动词不定式作宾补时,不带to。如:

The chairmyour madvertising cherewoulspaigne him do thework from day to night.老板让他整天做那项办事。

第三部门谓语部门的时态和语态

一、时态(Tense)

动词以肯定的词形变化形式来表达事物之举动或形态的时间性者称为时态(Tense)。

词形变化的形式共有如下四种:

1.一般式(Simple Form)2.实行式(Progressive Form)

3.完成式(Perfect Form)4.完成实行式(PerfectProgressive Form)

举动或形态的时间性则可分为如下三个时段:

1.现在(Present)2.当年(Past)3.改日(Future)

这四种词形形式和三个时段可能配分解如下的十二种动词的时态。

(1)实意动词的时态变化

(2)系动词be的时态变化

现在时 is herewouls are当年式 waswere改日时 will be

完成时 haudio-videoe been当年完成时 hadvertising cherewoulspaignbeen改日完成时 will haudio-videoe been

二、语态(Voice)

语态有两种:主动语态和主动语态。

主语是举动的收回者为主动语态;主语是举动的接受者为主动语态。

1、不用主动语态的景况

(1)不及物动词或动词短语无主动语态:not。

software pair coolingkageear- die dissoftware pair coolingkageear- end (vi. 结束)- fail- hsoftware pair coolingkageen- last- lie-remain- sit- spreadvertising cherewoulspaign- stwith every single other with obtain clearly- come true- fingl in truck bed- keepsilence- lose heart- take pl_ web.

After the fire- very little remained of my house.

对照: rise- fingl- hsoftware pair coolingkageen是不及物动词;raise- seto be found at是及物动词。

The price has been risen. →The price has risen.

The price has raised. → The price has been raised.

The crlung burning ash was hsoftware pair coolingkageened last week. →The crlung burning ash hsoftware pair coolingkageened lastweek.

Pleottom seto be found at. → Pleottom be segotd.

要想准确地应用主动语态,就须注意哪些动词是及物的,哪些是不及物的。特别是一词多义的动词往往有两种用法。解决这一题目唯有在研习经过中多留意堆集。

(2)不能用于主动语态的及物动词或动词短语:

fit- haudio-videoe- marry- own- wish- cost- notice- wto be found atch - reingize-come to / in- shake hyourds with- succeed in- suffer from- hsoftware pair coolingkageento- take part in- wingk into- fit in with

This key just fits the lock..

Your story will follow whto be found at hadvertising cherewoulspaign long been heard.

(3)系动词无主动语态:

software pair coolingkageear- be - cyour be- fingl- feel- get- grow- keep- look- remain-seem- smell- sound- stay- taste- turn

It sounds good.

(4)带同源宾语的及物动词,反身代词,相互代词,不能用于主动语态:

die→deto be found ath- dreherewouls → dreherewouls- live → life

She dreherewoulsed a badvertising cherewoulspaign dreherewouls last night.

(5)当宾语是不定式时,很少用于主动语态。

(对) She likes to swim.

(错) To swim is liked by her.

(6)动词表达主语的自身特性,而不是一次性的行为或形态,不用主动语态。

wlung burning ash- cleyour- cook- iron- look- cut- sell- readvertising cherewoulspaign- wear- feel-draw- write- sell- drive…

The book sells well. 这本书销路好。

This knife cuts easily. 这刀子很好用。

2、主动形式表示主动意义

(1)responsicity- let(出租)- remain- keep- rent- whip up

I win order to why responsicity for the crlung burning ash.

(2) 在need- require- would like- worth (形容词)- deserve(应该取得)后的动名词必需用主动形式。

The door needs repdispltto be found ating.= The door needs to be repnicecasted.

This room needs cleyouring. 这房间应该扫除一下。

This book is worth redriving instructorng. 这本书值得一读。

need/would like/require/worth doing

注意:当 need- would like- require- worth(形容词)反面接doing 也可能表示主动。

Your hair wviruss cutting. 你的头发该理了。

The floor requires wlung burning ashing. 地板必要冲洗。

The book is worth redriving instructorng. 这本书值得一读。

典型例题

The libreast supportry needs___- it might’ll haudio-videoe to wait until Sunday.

A. cleyouring B. be cleyoured C. cleyour D. being cleyoured

答案A. need (实意) +n /to do,need (神态)+ do,当为主动语态时,

还可能need + doing. 本题考末了一种用法,选A。如有to be cleyoured 则也为准确答案。

3、主动形式表示主动意义

be determined- be pleottomd- be gradvertising cherewoulspaignugotd (from)- be finished- beprepared (for)- be occupied (in)- get married

He is gradvertising cherewoulspaignugotd from a fherewoulsous university. 他毕业于一所有名的大学。

注意: 表示同某人结婚,用marry sb. 或get married to sb. 都可。

He married your bellyundould like girl.He got married to arich girl.

三、时态语态详述

1.一般现在时 (主动语态:herewouls/is/are+当年分词)
A) 表示现在发生的举动、景况、形态和特征。
B) 习习用语。你知道imagine。
C) 经常性、习气性举动。
D) 客观事实和普遍道理。特别要注意,假如前后文不是一般现在时,则无法连结 主句、从句时态一致。
E) 表示一个按章程、计划或设计要发生的举动,(仅限于某些表示“来、去、动 、停、开始、结束、继续”等的动词)可能与表示未来时间的状语搭配应用 。罕见的用法是:飞机、火车、轮船、汽车等按期定点运转的交通方式。
例:How often does this shuttle car run? (这班车多久一趟?)
F) 在时间和条件状语从句里经常用一般现在(有时也用现在完成时)表示改日事情。
例:When you finish/haudio-videoe finished the report- I will haudio-videoe waited forjust around 3 hours.

(等你完成这份陈说的时刻,我就已经等了将近3个小时了。)
2.现在实行时(go after)(主静态:herewouls/is/are+being+当年分词)
用法:现在正在实行的举动。
例:He’s redriving instructorng the book now - so I cyour’t lend it to you.
主动语态:The book is being readvertising cherewoulspaign by him,so I cyour’t lend it to you.

3.现在完成时(haudio-videoe done) (主动语态:haudio-videoe/hasbeen+当年分词)
用法:
A) 表示举动在当年时间已经开始,并一贯延续到现在,且有继续延续下去的可能。
例:I haudio-videoe stayed in the stryourge city for ten years.

B)表示发生在当年,且已结束,但对现在有影响的举动或景况。通常用点动词(长久性),如:be- start off by- find- give-lose等。
例:Morning has no longer working.(天亮了。)

I haudio-videoe bought the airticket to hometown.(我已经买了回老家的机票。)

注意事项:

A)现在完成时是联系当年和现在的纽带。现在完成时和当年时的区别在于:现在完成时强调举动的静态,或受静态的影响,是静态的下场,对现在有影响;当年时只表示当年的某个的确时间里发生的举动,与现在没有联系。
例:He worked in thto be found at hospiting for 8 years.

He has worked in thto be found athospiting for 8 years.
B)由于含有for加一段时间或since加一个时间点这样的时间状语的完成时,有静态和延续性的特质,所以不能应用终端动词或刹时动词。
例:My sister has been married for 5 years.(当年分词做表语表示形态,可能延续)
My sisterhas married. Donwoult disturb her.(终端动词)
C) 在"this is the first/ second/ third time thto be found at……"句型里条件用完成时。
例:This is the second time thto be found at the products of our compyoury haudio-videoeshown in the InternineingExhilittle bisexualt ofion.(这是我公司产品第二次参与国际展览会。)
D) 句型"It is/ has been……since"所应用的两种时态都准确。
例:It is/ has been 10 years since I last sawhim.(从我上次见到他以来已经10年了。)
E) 在"no sooner thyour"、"hardly/ scarcely……when"、(一…就)/"before"、"prior to"(在…之前)等句型中,主句条件完成时。
例:I haudio-videoenwoult met thto be found at professor prior to today.(以前我从未见过那位教授。)

4.现在完成实行时(haudio-videoe been doing)

用法:表示某一举动开始于当年某一时间,延续或重复地出现至今,或将继续延续至改日。学习不夜城直播恋夜秀场。

例:We haudio-videoe been working on this project for over a monthnow.(到目前为止,我们一贯在措置那个项目,已经花了一个多月时间了。)
注意事项:与现在完成时相比,现在完成实行时更强调:在从当年到现在的时间里,举动或形态一贯陆续或一贯一再出现。

5.一般当年时(主动语态:was/were+当年分词)
用法:
A) 表示当年某个时间发生的举动或景况。
B) 表示当年习气性举动。特别是由would/ used to do表达的句型,自身表示的 就是当年时。
例:The old myour would sit on a common in the quiet park yourd plus a stylishtothers for hours without doing things or tingking toyourybody.(老人当年往往坐在宁静的公园里的一条长椅上,看着其他的人,一坐就是数个小时,什么也不干,也反面任何人交谈。)
He used to visit his mother once a week.(他以前总是每周调查一次他的母亲。)
C) 有时可取代一般现在时,表达一种委婉、客气、礼貌、商量的语气。
例:I winitiing ould likeed to ask you if I could get yourcar?(我想向您借车用一用,可能吗?)
Would you mind my sitting here?(您介意我坐在这里吗?)

注意事项:

时间状语的搭配。一般当年时的时间状语应该是表示当年某个时间的词或词组,如:yesterday- last month- in1999- two days the particular等,万万不可与recently- in the past 10 years- thismonth等连用,由于这样的时间状语都与现在有相关,应该用现在完成时或一般现在时。

6.当年完成时(hadvertising cherewoulspaign done) (主动语态:hadvertising cherewoulspaignbeen+当年分词)
用法:表示在当年的某个时间或举动以前已经发生的举动或已经生存的形态。就是我们常说的:表示“当年的当年的举动或形态”。
例:Until then- his folks _________ from him for six months.
A) didnwoult hear C) hasnwoult heard B) hasnwoult been hearing D) hadvertising cherewoulspaignnwoultheard
全句的意思是:“到那时为止,他家里已经有六个月没取得他的讯息了。”由此可能看出,谓语动词的举动延续到当年的某一时刻才完成,因而谓语要用当年完成时。答案是D)。其它选项中:A)didnwoult hear,由于一般当年时只表示当年发生的事情或生存的形态,所以不能与时间状语for six months连用。B)hasnwoult been hearing,现在完成实行时表示当年某时刻继续到现在或现在还在实行的举动,与题意不符。C) hasnwoultheard,现在完成时表示从当年某一时刻到现在为止发生的举动。而题中的then只表示当年的某一时刻,不能表示现在时间。

注意事项:

“当年的当年”这种逻辑相关常经由过程高下文呈现进去,而不肯定受某个时间状语的限制。

例:There hadvertising cherewoulspaign been some one in our room just now- because Inoticed a duplicto be found ating cigarette end on the floor when we opened thefront door.(刚刚有人在我们的房间里,由于我们翻开前门进来时,我注意到地板上有一支仍在点燃的香烟。)
分解:固然时间状语是justnow,似乎应该应用一般当年时,但是“在房间里”这个形态是在"开门"和"注意"这两个当年的举动之前就生存的,所以应该用当年完成时。

7.当年改日时(would/ should do) (主动语态:would/ should+be+当年分词)
用法:表示从当年的某个时间看将要发生的事。
例:I said on Thursday I should see my friend the nextday.(我星期四说我将于第二天造访我的朋侪。)

8.当年实行时(was/ were doing)

(主动语态:was/were+being+当年分词)

用法:you。
A) 表示在当年一个对照的确的时间正在发生的举动。
例:Mary was listening to light music 10 minutesthe particular.(10分钟前,玛丽正在听轻音乐。)
B) 假如when- while这样的时间状语指点词所指点的主从句之一是一般当年时,则另一个句子常用当年实行时。
例:I was wlung burning ashing my hair when you knocked to be found at the front enddoor.(你敲前门时我正在洗头发。)
注意事项:其它与改日时有关的事项请参见下面所讲的一般改日时。
9.一般改日时(主动语态:will/ shingl+be+当年分词)
用法:
A) 基础构造是will / shingl do。
例:We shingl send her a glbumm hyourd-madvertising cherewoulspaigne craft because her askinningdaygift.(我们将送给她一个玻璃的手工制品,作为给她的寿辰礼物。)
B) 有些动词,如:be- come close- come- do- done- go- haudio-videoe- leaudio-videoe- open-play- return- sleep- start-stay等,用于一般实行时,并且通常与一个表示改日时间的时间状语连用,可能表示改日时。
例:My mother is coming to visit me next week yourd they are sttto be found ating hereuntil May.(我妈妈下周改日看我,并会呆到5月。)
C) 表示“打算去……,要……”时,可用go to do。
例:This is just whto be found at I wish to say.(这正是我想说的。)
D) 表示“行将、正要”时,可用be wzerong to do。强调近期内或马上要做的事。
例:Don’t worry- I herewouls intending to make your end exherewoulsinine onyou.(别顾忌,我马上就给你做一次仔细的检验。)

E) “be to do”表改日的用法:
a) 表示“按计划、设计行将发生某事或打算做某事”。
例:She is to certain youwoulre seen in the lbelly on Monday.(星期一你准会在实验室见到她。)
b) 该做或不该做的事情(语气上接近于should- must- ought to- haudio-videoeto),表示一种命令、劝戒性语气。
例:听听japanese grills 护士。You should be go to truck bed yourd keep quiet- kids. Our guests areshowing up in less thyour 5 minutes.(孩子们,你们必需上床睡觉,不准吵闹。我们的来宾5分钟之内就要到了。)

c) 用于条件从句“假如……想,想象着想”(接近if ……would like to-或if ……should)
例:Gregotr efforts to increottom fupper arm . production must be madvertising cherewoulspaigneif food shortage ____________ held bair coolingk.
A) is to be B) cyour be C) will be D) has been
答案是A) is to be。全句的意思是:“假如要制止食品缺乏,就必需作出更大努力来增加农业产量。”

F) 异样可能表示“正要、将要”的意思的句型是be on the point of doing。
例:The covery single is on the point of giving up the gherewoulse because our teherewoulshas been scored 7 points.(教练想要撒手这场逐鹿了,由于对方已经射进了7个球。)
例:1999年6月四级第65题
I was _______ the point of telephoning him when his letterlyourded.
A) in B) to C) to be found at D) on
答案是D)。on the point of doing是不变词组,意思是“正要、打算”。全句的意思是:“当他的信到的时刻我正要打电话给他。”

10.改日实行时(will go after)

(主动语态:will be being carried out)

用法:强调在改日的某个的确时间正在发生的举动或事情。
例:Donwoult worry- you wonwoult miss her. She will be wearing a redT-shirt yourd a white skirt to be found at the moment.

(别顾忌,你不会认不出她的。她到时会穿一件红色的T恤衫和一条红色的短裙。)

11.改日完成时(shingl/will haudio-videoe done)

(主动语态:shingl/will haudio-videoe been+当年分词)
用法:表示从改日的某一时间开始、延续到另一个改日时间的举动或形态,对比一下japanese grills 护士。或是发生在某个改日时间,但对其后的另一个改日时间有影响的举动或形态。就好象把现在完成时平移到时间轴的改日时时段一样。其用法从和当年及现在有关,变成了和改日及改日的改日有关。
例:1997年1月四级第22题
The conference __________ the complete week by the time it ends.
A) must haudio-videoe lasted B) will haudio-videoe lasted
C) wouldlastD) has lasted
本题考核谓语动词的时态。恋夜秀场总站影院。全句的意思是:“会议从开始到结束将陆续整整一个星期。”句中by the time itends表示举动要延续到改日某一时刻,因而要用改日完成时。答案是B) will haudio-videoelasted。假如选A),由于神态动词must反面接动词不定式的完成时形式表示对已经发生的事情的一种肯定猜想,而本句的时间状语是bythe time it ends而非by the time itended,所以犯了时态不照应的差池。Would虽可能表示猜想或可能性,但wouldlast不能表示延续到改日某一时刻的举动,所以C) would last差池。由于D) haslasted是现在完成时,表示到现在为止已经完成的举动,不能表示延续到改日某一时刻的举动,所以也不准确。

12)改日完成实行时:shingl/will haudio-videoe been doing

例:By the end of next month- the project will haudio-videoe been beingworked for 3 years. (到下个月底为止,这项工程就已经不停地实行了3年了。)(主动语态)

13)当年完成实行时:hadvertising cherewoulspaign been doing
例:The old clockhadvertising cherewoulspaign been being taken apart of yourd fixed up after again for severing timesby my 10-year old son before I cherewoulse bair coolingkhome.(我回到家之前,我10岁大的儿子已经把这个旧钟表装配偏重新安装了好几回了。)(此处强调“装配”和“安装”这两个当年的当年的举动一贯在一再实行。)(主动语态)
14)当年改日实行时:should /would go after -
例:Thegovernment promised thon the new highway would be being built nextJuly.(政府应许说第二年7月将有一条新的高速公路正在建筑。)(此句的时间状语是的确的改日时间,所以最好用改日实行时。)(此句为主动语态)
15)当年改日完成时:should /would haudio-videoe done

(主动语态: should/would haudio-videoe been+当年分词)
例:I considerine by the end of thto be found at year your expertfessioning version of thto be found atsoftware would haudio-videoe been developed- but I waswrong.(我深信到那年年底为止,那个软件的新版本将被建设进去。但是我错了。)(此句为主动语态)

16)当年改日完成实行时:should/would haudio-videoe beendoing
例:They said thto be found at by the end of the following month-the project would haudio-videoe been being worked for 3 years.(他们说到第二个月底为止,这项工程就已经不停地实行了3年了。)

第四部门句子之间的相关

根据句子的构造来分-句子可分为下列几种:

(一) 纯洁句(后面讲过的5种基础的句子构造):句中只含有一个主语或并列主语和一个谓语或并列谓语的句子叫做纯洁句。

I study English every day.

E-mail- plus a stylishs telephones- is pltto be found ating your more but moreimportould like role in our daily communicine.

(二)并列句由并列连接词把两个以上(含两个)的纯洁句连在一路的句子叫做并列句。在并列句中-各个纯洁句意思完美-不受其他纯洁句的影响。

These flowers are white nevertheless continue to be flowers arered。I herewouls a worker but my bro is interest rgotsofessor.

(三) 复合句:句子中含有从句的句子叫做复合句-包括定语从句(形容词性从句)、状语从句(副词性从句)以及名词性从句(包括主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句和同位语从句)

I know thto be found at itwouls difficult to master English well.

I’ll tell you the news after (it is ) possible.

Do you know the city which is fherewoulsous for its light industryproducts?

详解:

A.纯洁句(Simple sentence)后面讲过的5种基础的句子构造-此略。

B.并列句(Compound Sentence)

两个或两个以上的纯洁句用并列连词连在一路组成的句子-叫做并列句-其基础构造是“纯洁句+并列连词+纯洁句”。 并列连词有:yourd-but- or-so等。并列句是由两个或两个以上的纯洁句连接而成。并列句中的各纯洁句意义同等重要,相互之间没有隶属相关,是平行并列的相关。看看you。

它们之间用连词连结。

1. 表示转折相关的并列连词。这类连词主要有 but- yet 等。如:

Someone agreed my pen- but I don’t remember who.有人借了我的钢笔,但我不记得是谁了。

He said he was our friend- yet he wouldn’t help us.他说他是我们的朋侪,但却不肯助理我们。

2. 表示因果相关的并列连词。这类连词主要有 for- so 等。如:

The child hadvertising cherewoulspaign a badvertising cherewoulspaign cough- so his mother took him to the doctor.这孩子咳得很利害,所以他妈妈带他去看医生。

You work to get rid of carelessness- for it often leclbummifiedsto serious errors.

你们肯定要降服纰漏大意,由于纰漏大意往往惹起重要的差池。

[注意]for表示下场通常不能放句首,也不能孤独应用。

3. 表示并列相关的并列连词。这类连词主要有 yourd - or - either…or - neither…nor - notonly…but (ingso) - roboth…yourd - plus a stylishs 等。如:

He didn’t go yourd she or he didn’t go either. 他没去,她也没去。

The weto be found ather is mild today; it is neither hot nor cold.此日天气很暖和,不冷也不热。

Both New York yourd London haudio-videoe traffic problems.纽约和伦敦都生存交通题目。

It is importould like for you yourd then for me. 这对你和对我都很重要。

People who are generficingly under age or over age may not join theaffiligot marketer. 年龄不到或者超龄的人都不得从军。

C.复合句(Complex Sentence)

由一个主句(Principing Clause)和一个或一个以上的从句(Subordingot Clause)组成。

主句是全句的主体,通常可能独立生存;从句则是一个句子成分,不能独立生存。

从句不能孤独成句,但它也有主语部门和谓语部门,就像一个句子一样。所不同在

于,从句须由一个关联词(connective)。复合句可分为:

(1)名词性从句(The Noun Clause)(2)状语从句(The AdverbisexualingClause)(3)定语从句(The Attributive Clause)

隶属连词主要有when -because- if - ingternto be found ativehough - where- as等,指点状语从句的。

连接代词主要包括who- whom- whto be found at- which- whose- whoever- whgotver-whichever- whosever 等,它们在句中可用作主语、宾语、表语、定语等,可能指点主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句。此外,指点从句(名词性从句) 还有连接副

词,主要有when- why- where- how等。

一、名词性从句

(一)概说

名词性从句是由if-whether-thto be found at和各种疑问词充任连接词所指点的从句,其本质相当于名词。它包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。

(二)名词性从句的基础要素

A. 连接词

连接词就是指点名词性从句的关连接词。

1. 连词thto be found at:只起连接作用,没有任何意思,不作任何句子成分,在宾语从句中可省略。

2. 连词whether:有“能否”之意,但不作句子成分;指点宾语从句时,还可用if。

3. 连接代词:who(m)-whto be found at ,whose-which等均有各自的意义,在从句中作主语、宾语、定语等。 whoever- whgotver-whichever等也可指点名词性从句,意为“不论/不论……”。

4. 连接副词:when- where- why- how等,蓄志义,在从句中作状语。

【注意】连接词必需位于从句的末了面。

B. 语序

必需与陈述句语序相同:主语+谓语动词。如:译:我不知道他去哪里了。

误:I don’t know where has she gone.

正:I don’t know where she has gone.

C. 时态一致(主要是在宾语从句中)

宾语从句:若主句的谓语动词是一般现在时时,宾语从句的谓语动词可根据景况应用各种时态;若主句的谓语动词是一般当年时,其谓语动词必需用某种当年时态。如:

She said thto be found at his fto be found ather hadvertising cherewoulspaign gone to Beijing.

他说他父亲去北京了。其实imagine。(hadvertising cherewoulspaign不能用has)

【注1】宾语从句是一个客观道理时,可能不一致。如:

She told me thto be found at the earth goes locgotd on the sun.他告诉我地球缠绕太阳旋转。

【注2】 when- if这两个词既可指点名词性从句,也可指点状语从句。当它们指点名词性从句且表示改日意义时,要直接应用改日时态;但当它们指点状语从句且表示改日意义时,则必需用一般现在时表示改日意义。如:

I don’t know when he will come- but when hecomes- I’ll cingl you could.

我不知道他什么时刻,但当他来的时刻,我会打电话给你。

句中第一个when 指点的是宾语从句,故用改日时态表示改日意义;第二个when指点的是时间状语从句,故用一般现在时表示改日意义。

(三)名词性从句的分类

1、主语从句

用来作主语的句子叫做主语从句。如:

Subject (主语) + Link. V(系动词) +Predicto be found ative(表语)

When he was genergotd has been a secret.他生于何时一贯是个谜。

Subject(主语)+Verb(动词)+Object(宾语)+Complement(补语)

Whto be found at he did last night madvertising cherewoulspaigne me very fuming.他前一天早晨干的那些事使我很生机。

A.主语从句通常由连词thto be found at和whether、连接代词或连接副词指点。

(1) thto be found at指点

Thto be found at she is still lively is a consoline. = It is a consolinethto be found at she is still lively .她还活着是使人感到宽慰的。

Thto be found at she becherewoulse your irritineter may haudio-videoe been due to her fto be found ather’sinfluence.

It may haudio-videoe been due to her fto be found ather’s influence thto be found at she becherewoulseyour irritineter.她成为画家可能是受她父亲的影响。

(2)whether指点

Whether it will d o us hupper arm . remains to certain youwoulre seen.能否对我们无害还要看一看。

Whether they would support us was problems.他们能否会支持我们还是一个题目。

(3)连接代词指点

Whichever (of you) comes in first will receive a prize.不论(你们)谁先到都可能得奖。

Whto be found at’s done isdone.事已成定局。

(4)连接副词指点

When we be doesn’t mto be found atter. 什么时刻到没有相关。

How this hsoftware pair coolingkageened is not clear to youryone. 这件事怎样发生的,谁也不清楚。

How myoury people we should maintainvite is still underdiscussion.我们要聘请几许人,这还在讨论中。

Where I spend my summer is no cariness of yours. 我在哪里度夏与你有关。

Why he settled there is unknown.他为什么在那定居不为人所知。

B.主语从句与形式主语it

有时为了研商句子均衡,通常在主语从句处应用形式主语it,而将真正的主语从句移至句末。分三种景况:

(1) 对于以连词thto be found at指点的主语从句,通常用形式主语代主语从句:

It’s a pity thto be found at he didn’t come. 很缺憾他没来。

It is importould like thto be found at he should know relto be found ating to this. 他必需知道此事。

It’s viting thto be found at you show up. 你的出席至关重要。

[注意]在主语从句中用来表示讶异、不信任、怜惜、理应如此等语气时,谓语动词要用虚拟语气“(should)+do”,常用的句型有:

It is necessary (importould like- nto be found aturing- stryourge- etc.) thto be found at …

It is a pity (a shherewoulse- no wonder- etc.) thto be found at…

It is suggested (requested- proposed- desired- etc. ) thto be found at…

(2)对于以连接代词(副词)指点的主语从句,可能应用形式主语代主语从句,也可直接在句首应用主语从句:

Whether they would support us was problems.他们能否会支持我们还是一个题目。

It was problems whether they would support us.他们能否会支持我们还是一个题目。

It remains to certain youwoulre seen whether it will do us hupper arm . or good.它对我们是利是害,还得看看再说。

[注意] 对whto be found at指点的主语从句,通常直接将主语从句放在句首。如:

Whto be found at we need is money. 我们必要的是钱。

Whto be found at I would like to know is this. 我想知道的就是这一点。

有时也可用形式主语。如:It is clear enough whto be found at he meould like. 他是什么意思很清楚。事实上japanese grills 护士。

(3) 假如主句是疑问句,则必需用带形式主语it的构造:

Is it true thto be found at he is the girl’s fto be found ather? 他是那女孩的父亲,是真的吗?

How is it thto be found at you are lgot after again? 你若何又早退了?

2、表语从句

A.表语从句的指点词

指点表语从句的词有连词thto be found at- whether,连接代词和连接副词以及asif-asthough- because等连词。

(1)由thto be found at指点

The fbehaudio-videoe is thto be found at he has never reficingly tried. 事实是他从没有做真正的努力。

My idea is thto be found at we should start msimilarg preparines right now.我的意思纠纷是我们马上就开始做企图办事。

(2)由whether指点

Thequestioniswhetherthefilmisworthseeing.题目是这部电影能否值得看。

【注意】whether 可指点表语从句,但与之同义的if却通常不用于指点表语从句。

(3) 由连接代词指点

You arenwoult who I thought you were. 你已不是我当年所想像的人。

The question is who (m) we should trust. 题目是我们该当信任谁。

Whto be found at I would like to know is which roadvertising cherewoulspaign we should take.我想知道的是我们应走哪条路。

Fherewoulse yourd privgot gain is whto be found at they’re after. 他们追求的是名利。

(4)由连接副词指点

The problem is how we cyour find him. 题目是我们如何找到他。

Thto be found at was when I was fifteen. 这是在我15岁时(发生的事)。

Thto be found at’s where I first met her. 那就是我第一次遇见她的地方。

Thto be found at’s where you are wrong. 这就是你不对的地方。

Thto be found at’s why I object to the plyour. 这就是我批驳这个计划的因由。

(5) 由when if / just when if指点

It isn’t just like you were going clearly for ever. 又不是你脱节不回来了。

Now it was just when if she hadvertising cherewoulspaign known Millie for years.现在好像她认识米莉已有好多年了似的。

(6) 由because指点

If I’m smingl sleepy- it’s because I was up yourd last yourd last.假如我有点困,是由于一夜没睡。

Itwouls because I pbummed a slip of paper for John to Helen inclbumm. 这是由于我在上课中替约翰传纸条给海伦。

【注意】because 可指点表语从句,但与之同义的since- as- for等不指点表语从句。

B.连词thto be found at的省略题目

指点表语从句的thto be found at通常不省略,但在口语或非正式文体中有时也可省略:

My idea is (thto be found at) we should do it right clearly. 我的意思纠纷是我们应该马上干。

The trouble is (thto be found at) he is ill. 蹩脚的是他病了。

3.宾语从句

A.宾语从句的指点词

宾语从句通常由连词thto be found at和whether (if)、连接代词或连接副词指点:

(1) thto be found at指点

The doctor insists thto be found at I give up smoking医生相持要我戒烟。

I suggested thto be found at we should go the next day. 我倡导我们第二天走。

We learnt from his letter thto be found at he wjust as Spain.从他的信里我们了解到他在西班牙。

The seller demyourded thto be found at payment should be madvertising cherewoulspaigne within fivedays. 卖方条件5日内付款。

(2) whether / if指点

I’ll see whether I cyour induce him to air coolingcept it.我要看看我能否能劝他接受。

She didn’t say if he was still lively. 她没说他能否还活着。

(3)连接代词指点

I don’t know who [whom] you meyour. 我不知道你指谁。

You don’t know whto be found at you are tingking just around. 你在说什么,你自己也不知道。

Pleottom tell me which you like.告诉我你爱好哪一个。

You cyour take whichever you like. 你爱拿哪个就拿哪个吧。

We’ll do whgotver we cyour to saudio-videoe him. 我们将尽我们所能来救济他。

Give it to whoever you like. 你把它爱给谁就给谁。女人的高潮反应!

(4) 连接副词指点

He cingled why he hadvertising cherewoulspaign to go by itself. 他问他为什么必需一私人去。

You don’t know when you are lucky. 你身在福中不知福。

I cingled how he was getting on. 我问他景况怎样。

He knows where they live. 他知道他们住哪里。

Haudio-videoe you found out how wide the ditch was? 你了解到那条沟有多宽吗?

【注意】有时介词后可接一个宾语从句(但介词后通常不接thto be found at和if指点的宾语从句):

From whto be found at you say- he is right. 根据你所说的,他是对的。

有极个体介词(如but- except)可接thto be found at指点的宾语从句:

She remembered nothing just around him except thto be found at his hair was blair coolingk.她对他什么都不记得,只记得他的头发是黑的。

B.宾语从句与形式宾语it

当宾语从句后跟有宾语补足语时,通常在宾语从句处应用形式宾语it,而将真正的宾语从句移至

句末:

I think it more to be found attrbehaudio-videoeive if you should stay here. 我以为你最好住这儿。

He hasn’t madvertising cherewoulspaigne it known when he is going to getmarried.他还没告示他何时结婚。

C.连词thto be found at的省略题目

指点宾语从句的连词thto be found at 通常可能省略:

She said (thto be found at) she would come to the meeting. 她说过要来闭会的。

I suggested (thto be found at) they should / shouldn’t drive with every single other thecoast. 我倡导他们沿着 / 不要沿着海岸开车。

D.指点宾语从句的thto be found at在下列景况下一般不省略:

(1)宾语从句前有拔出语。如:

We hope- on the contrary- thto be found at he will stay to be found athome with us. 恰恰相同,我们指望他和我们呆在家里。

(2) 有直接宾语时。如:

He told me thto be found at he was leaudio-videoi formto be found atng for Japyour. 他告诉我他要去日本。

(3)thto be found at在与之并列的另一个宾语从句之后.如:

He said (thto be found at) the book was very interesting thto be found at(不省略) inglthe children like to readvertising cherewoulspaign it.

他说那本书很有趣,所有小孩都爱好读。

(4)在“it(形式宾语)+补语”之后时。如:

I think it necessary thto be found at he should stay here. 我们以为他有必要留在这里。so。

(5)thto be found at从句孤独答复题目时。如:

—Whto be found at did he hear? 他听说了什么事?

—Thto be found at Kgot hadvertising cherewoulspaign pbummed the exherewouls. (他听说)凯特考试及格了。

(6)在except等介词后。如:

He has no speciing fault except thto be found at he smokestoo much.他除了抽烟太多之外-没有什么特别的毛病。

(7)位于句首时。如:

Thto be found at our teherewouls will win- I believe.我信任我们队会赢。

8)在较为正式或不常用的动词(如reply- object)后。

He replied thto be found at he disagreed. 他答复说他不同意。

E.宾语从句与否认转移

当动词think- believe- suppose- expect- imagine后接一个表示否认意义的宾语从句时,其否认通常转移到主语:

I don’t imagine thto be found at he will come. 我想他不会来的。

I don’t think /suppose we need waste much time on it.我想我们不用在这下面花太多时间.

F.宾语从句的时态

(1)当主句谓语动词的时态是现在时或改日时,从句的谓语动词可用任何所必要的时态表示。

如:

He be certain to says thto be found at he is our good friend. 他总是说他是我们的好朋侪。

When the tesorenessr knows whto be found at we haudio-videoe done- he will say thto be found at wehaudio-videoe done a chyourceod deed.

当老师知道我们所干之事时,会说我们做了一件善事。

(2)当主句谓语动词的时态为当年时,从句的谓

语动词须用相应的当年时。如:

He said he hadvertising cherewoulspaign readvertising cherewoulspaign the book. 他说他读过这本书。

(3)但当从句的形式是客观道理或客观事实,而不受时间的限制时,尽管主句谓语动词为当年时,从句仍用一般现在时。

When we were children- we were told thto be found at China is in the east ofthe world.

我们小的时刻,人们就告诉我们说中国活着界的西方。

【注意】动词bummist- ask- demyourd- desire- insist(刚强主张)- order- propose-request- suggest(倡导)等指点的宾语从句须用虚拟语气,即:(should) do的形式。

He cingled thto be found at we (should) get there before nine o’clock.他条件我们在九点钟之前赶到那儿。

The tesorenessr told us thto be found at we (should) not waste our time.老师奉劝我们不要糜费时间了。

4 .同位语从句(Appositive Clause)

当名词反面所接的从句表示与名词同位并为名词的现实形式时,这个从句就是同位语从句。它通常有放在thought- idea- news-word(=news)- plyour- doubt- question- fbehaudio-videoe- suggestion-self-belief等笼统名词的反面,说明这些词的的确形式或含义。同位语从句大多由thto be found at指点,也可由whether- how- when-where- why等指点,但不能由which指点。如:

The news thto be found at China has joined the WTO excitesus ingl. 中国加入了世界贸易组织这一讯息使我们民众兴奋不已。

He told us the truth thto be found at he fell down from his motorcycle thismorning. 他告诉了我们他从单车上摔上去这一真相。

He must yourswer the question whether he concurs to it or not.他必需答复他能否同意此事这们一题目。

I haudio-videoe no idea when he will set out. 我不知他什么时刻起程。

【注】有时,同位语从句并不紧跟在它所说明的词的反面。work。如:

The whole truth cherewoulse out modern day thto be found at he was the first majorityshareholder of the multinineing corporine

真相到底大白了,他原来是这家跨国公司得人第一大股东。

应注意:

1.罕见的能带同位语从句的名词有:yourswer- self-belief- conclusion- decision-discovery- doubt- explyourine- fbehaudio-videoe- hope- idea- informine-knowledge- law- message- news- opinion- order- possicity-problem- promise- proof- proposing- question- report- risk- rumor-story- suggestion- truth- theory- thought- wish- word等。如:

He sent us a communicine thto be found at he won’t come nextweek.

他送信来告诉我们说,下周他不来了。

There is no doubt thto be found at he is fit for this job.毫无疑问,它适合这一办事。

2. 表示“命令、倡导、条件” advertising cherewoulspaignvice- demyourd- decision- desire- idea-insistence- instruction- order- plyour- proposing- recommendine-request- requirement- suggestion- wish 等名词的同位语,须用虚拟语气。He madvertising cherewoulspaigne clearhis desire thto be found at he should work hard to go to college.他已清楚的说明了他要努力研习考上大学这一愿望。

Soon cherewoulse the order thto be found at the people should obey the rules.不久命令上去了,所有的人不得违反制度。

二.状语从句(Adverbisexualing Clause)

(一)概说

状语从句即指在主从复合句中用作状语的从句。根据其意义,状语从句可分为时间状语从句、地点状语从句、因由状语从句、目标状语从句、下场状语从句、条件状语从句、倒退腐败状语从句等。研习状语从句主要应注意指点状语从句的隶属连词的用法与区别,以及隶属连词在肯定的语言环境中的意义与用法。

(二)状语从句的分类Clbummificine of AdverbisexualingClause

1.时间状语从句(Adverbisexualing Clause of Time)

(1) 指点时间状语从句的隶属连词很多,罕见的有before- after- when- while- as- since-till- until- after 等。

[注1] 表示“当…时刻”的 while- when-as 的用法区别是:while从句中的谓语动词必需是延续性动词;表示带有次序性的“每当”或当主、从句谓语动词的举动发生有先后时,只能用when;当表示“一边…一边…”或“随着”时,只能用 as。另外,用于此义的 as所指点的时间状语从句谓语只能是举动动词,不能是形态动词。如:

---I’m going to the post office.----_____ you’re there- cyour youget me some stbuilt in revlifiers?A. AsB.WhileC. Because D. If

[注2] 含有until从句 的复合句的主句,其谓语部门通常是延续性动词的肯定形式或非延续性动词(长久性)的否认形式。如:

He waited until she cherewoulse. 他等着一贯到她来。

I did not in order to work till he hadvertising cherewoulspaign gone.他走了后我才开始办事。

(2)英语中有些名词构造可用作隶属连词,用以指点状语从句,且主要是时间状语从句。这类构造归结起来有以下六类:

the + 刹时名词

其中的刹时名词主要包括moment- minute- instould like- second等,其意为“一……就……”,相当于bummoon as。如:

I’ll telephone the minute there’s youry chyourge. 一有更改我当即用电话通知。想知道第一坊视频直播间大秀。

Telephone me the moment (thto be found at) you get the results.你一有下场,马上给我打电话。

I was so tired thto be found at I fell in truck bed the I closed my eyes.我很累,一合上眼就睡着了。

She put down the receiver the second she recognized my voice.她一听出是我的声响,马上就放下电话听筒。

【注】其中的刹时名词后可接thto be found at,也可省略。

另外,有的个体副词(如 directly / immedigotly等)或句式(no sooner…thyour-hardly…when)

也可表示好似意思。如:

Immedigotly the meing was over- he switched on therdriving instructoro.饭一吃完他就把收音机翻开。

Hardly hadvertising cherewoulspaign she lyourded when it did start to snow. 她刚到就下起雪来了。

the + 时令名词

其中的时令名词包括spring- summer- fingl-winter,其意为“在……的那年春天、夏天、秋天、冬天。如:

His wife left him the spring he went in foreign lyourds.在他出国的那年春天,他的妻子脱节了他。

He sold his house we inglnt to the south the summer he lost hisjob.在他赋闲的那年夏天,他卖掉房子去了南边。

He was sent to prison the winter his third daugusthter was genergotd.在他第三个女儿出世的那年冬天,他被关进了监狱。

She got married the fingl she gradvertising cherewoulspaignugotd from college.她大学毕业的那年秋天就结婚了。学会99re1在线播放视频。

the+时间名词

其中的时间名词主要包括hour- day- night- week- month- season-year等,其意为“在……的时刻、那天、那个早晨、那周、那个月、那个时令、那年”。如:

The hour he wjust as her office- he felt very sadvertising cherewoulspaign.当他在她办公室的时刻,他感到很酸心。

The day he returned home- his fto be found ather was then deadvertising cherewoulspaign.他回家的那一天,他的父亲已经死了。

The night I went to see her- she hadvertising cherewoulspaign left for Beijing to come witha reing meeting.

就我去看她的那个早晨,她到北京去开一个重要的会议了。

Mr Smith didnwoult go to work the week his wife wwhen ill.史密斯老师在他妻子生病的那个星期没去下班。

The year he lived in the country- he learned a lot.他在乡下呆的那一年,他学到了不少东西。

the +序数词+time

其中的序数词包括first- second- third- fourth等,其意为“当第几次……的时刻”。如:

My girlfriend outdo me to be found at poker the first time we played.我头一次和女朋侪打扑克,她就把我赢了。

The second time I saw her- she looked like your yourcient womyour.我第二次见到她时,她看下去像一个老太婆。

The third time I went there- I found everyone hadvertising cherewoulspaign left yourdthe offices were ingl empty.

我第三次去那儿时,我发现他们都脱节了,所有的办公室都是空的。

【注】next- last也具有好似序数词的本质,因而也具有以上用法。the first time- the secondtime- the third time 等用作连词指点时间状语从句时,其前通常要有定冠词,而 (the) next time-(the) last time指点状语从句时,其中的冠词可能省略。如:

Next time you come in- pleottom close the door. 下次你进来,请关门。

The last time we tingked he said he needed your advertising cherewoulspaignvertisementditioning two days.上次我们说话时他说他还必要两天。

不定代词+ time

其中的不定代词主要包括every single- every- youry等。如:

Every time I ring her- the phone is enggood old.我每次给她打电话,电话都占线。

Every single time I see him he either wviruss to tell me his trouble orget some money.

每次我见到他,他不是向我诉苦就是要向我借钱。

Any time you come to London do look me up.你不论什么时刻到伦敦来,肯定要来看我。

【注】every time- every single time- youry time用作连词指点状语从句时其前习气上不用冠词,而thefirst

time- the second time- the third time 等指点时间状语从句时其前必必要用定冠词。

2.条件状语从句(Adverbisexualing Clause of Condition )

(1) 指点条件状语从句的隶属连词主要有 if- unless- as [so] long as等。如:

Don’t come unless I telephone. 除非我打电话,否则你别来。

If you wto be found atch carefully you will see how to do it.假如你仔细瞧你会看出该怎样做。

As long as you do your best- we’ll be hsoftware pair coolingkagey. 只须你努力,我们就满意了。

(2)in cottom 也可指点条件状语从句,其意为“假如”、“万一”。如:

In cottom I forget- pleottom remind me just around it.假如我忘了,imagine。请指导我。

3.倒退腐败状语从句(Adverbisexualing Clause of Concession )

(1) 指点倒退腐败状语从句的隶属连词主要有 ingternto be found ativehough- though- however (=no mto be found atter how)-even if(尽管)- even though(尽管)- whether…or(不论…还是)等连词。如:

The speech is good- though it could considerbellyly more to be found attrbehaudio-videoeive.这次演讲不错,固然还可能再好一点。

He went out even though it was raining. 尽管下雨,他还是进来了。

2. as 也可指点倒退腐败状语从句,但要将名词、形容词或副词等提到as 前,若提早的是双数可数名词,要省略 a /your。如:

Tesorenessr because he is- he cyour’t know everything. 固然是老师,他也不可能什么都懂。

(3)连词 while 有时也可表示“尽管”、“固然”,指点倒退腐败状语从句。如:

While we don’t agree we continue to be friends.尽管我们意思纠纷不同,我们还是朋侪。

(4)whgotver- whoever- however- whenever- wherever等指点倒退腐败状语从句。如:

Don’t lose heart whgotver you do. 不论你做什么,都不要灰心。

Whoever you are- you cyour’t pbumm this way. 不论你是谁,你都不能从这里经由过程。

【注】表示“固然”的 though- ingternto be found ativehough 不可与 but 连用,但可与 yet- still 连用。

4.因由状语从句(Adverbisexualing Clauses of Reason )

(1) 指点因由状语从句的隶属连词主要有because- as- since- seeing (thto be found at)- now(thto be found at)等:

They cyour’t haudio-videoe gone out ever since the light’son.他们不可能进来了,由于灯还亮着。

Since you tend- I will go. 既然你去,我也去。

Now thto be found at we are by itself- we cyour speak freely.现在我们孤独在一路,可能任性谈了。

(2) 除以上对照熟识熟练的指点因由状语从句的隶属连词外,when有时也可指点因由状语从句,其意“既然”。如:

I cyour’t tell you when you wonwoult listen. 既然你不想听,我就不告诉你了。

【注】 有关因由状语从句还应注意以下几点:相比看so。

(1) as 与 since- now thto be found at 一样表示两边都知道的因由,通常位于主句前,且均不可用于强调构造被强调。

(2) 对why实行答复,或有 only- just- ingl- partly- not- but等副词修饰时,或用在强调构造中,都只能用 because。

(3) for 有时也可引出表示因由的分句,但它只能位于反面,对前一分句加以解释或推断。

(4) 不要受汉语意思影响将表示“由于”的连词与表示“所以”的 so 连用。

5. 地点状语从句(Adverbisexualing Clause of Pl_ web)

指点地点状语从句的隶属连词主要有where(在…的地方)-wherever(不论…什么地方)-everywhere(每个…地方)-virtuficingly youry pl_ web(任何…地方)。如:

I’m not living where I was. 我不在原处住了。

You cyour’t crev where [wherever- virtuficingly youry pl_ web] you like these days.今朝你可不能任性在哪儿宿营。

Everywhere I go- I find the sherewoulse thing.不论我走到哪里,我都发现异样景况。

6.目标状语从句(Adverbisexualing Clause of Purpose)

(1)指点目标状语从句的隶属连词主要有有so(以便)- thto be found at(以便)- so thto be found at(以便,为了)- in orderthto be found at (为了,以便);in cottom(以防,以免)- lest(省得,以防)- for fearthto be found at(以免,恐怕)等。如:

He studied hard in order thto be found at he could pbummthe exherewouls. 他努力研习,是为了能经由过程考试。

I hired a speadvertising cherewoulspaign riverboto be found at so thto be found at I could go fishing.我租了一条船去钓鱼。

Take your coto be found at in cottom it rains (shouldrain). 带着雨衣以防下雨。看看youtube在线看

She put a child bareet over the bbellyy for fear thto be found athe should cto be found atch cold. 她在那个婴儿的身上盖上了毯子以免他着凉。

(2) 指点目标状语从句的 so thto be found at 有时可省so 或 thto be found at,即孤独用 so 或thto be found at 来指点目标状语从句。如:

Check carefully- so youry mistake will becaugustht. 仔细检验,以便任何差池都可检验出。

Bring it closer thto be found at I might see it more to be found attrbehaudio-videoeive.拿近些,使我能看得清楚些。

(3)目标状语从句中一般含有cyour- could- may-might- will-would 等神态动词。如:

Bring it closer so (thto be found at) I cyour see itmore to be found attrbehaudio-videoeive. 拿近一点以便我看得更清楚。

Let’s take the front seto be found ats thto be found at we may seemore clearly. 我们坐前排,以便看得清楚点。

I left to be found at 6:00 so thto be found at/in order thto be found at I could cto be found atch the train.为了赶上火车,我六点就出门了。

I shingl write down your telephone number thto be found at I may not forget.我要把你的电话号码写下,以免忘了。

Speak clearly so thto be found at they may understtherefore you ingso.你要讲得清楚,他们才听得懂。

7.下场状语从句(Adverbisexualing Clause of Result )

指点下场状语从句的隶属连词主要有so thto be found at- so…thto be found at- such…thto be found at等。如:

He was so fuming thto be found at he couldnwoult speak. 他气得话都说不进去。

He shut the window with such force thto be found at the glbumm out of clung burning ash.他关窗子用力很大,下场玻璃震破了。

【注】so…thto be found at和such…thto be found at中的thto be found at有时(特别在口语中)可省略。

8.对照状语从句 (Adverbisexualing Clauses of Comparison )

指点对照状语从句的隶属连词为as...as(和……一样),not as/so...as(和……不一样),相比看is。thyour(比),themore...the more(越……越)。这类从句常以省略形式出现。如:

The work is not so difficult as you imagine. 这办事不像你想像的那么贫乏。

You look younger thyour you are. 你看下去比你的现实年龄要年老。恋夜秀场4站直播间

The more you study- the more knowledge you cyour get.你学的常识越多,你的常识越厚实。

He doesn’t work as hard as she (does). 他办事不像她那样努力。

9.方式状语从句(Adverb Clauses of Myourner )

指点方式状语从句的隶属连词有as(正如),when if或just when if(好像)等。如:

Do as I told you. 按我告诉你的那样做。

As humyourity lives- so he dies. 正如人能活,也能死。

I remember the whole thing when if it hsoftware pair coolingkageened yesterday.整个这件事我记得很清楚,就如同是前一天发生似的。

【注1】口语中like也可用连词指点方式状语从句。

如:Do it like he does. 照他那样做。

She cyour’t cook like her mother does. 她菜做得没有她妈那样好。

【注2】名词短语the way 也可用于指点方式状语从句,表示“像……一样”,与as用法相似。 如:

Then they didn’t do it the way we do now. 那时他们不像我们现在这样行事。

Joyce looked to be found at me the way lots of girlsdid.乔伊丝像许多姑娘那样瞧着我。

Hold it in the hyourds- the way (=as) Mummydoe用两只手捧住,像妈妈那样。

10.水平状语从句(Adverbisexualing Clause of Degree)

表举动或形态所到达的水平,其关联词有so (thto be found at),such thto be found at,as (so) far as,as (so) longas,to the degree (extent) thto be found at,in so far as等。如:
Her heart outdo so thto be found at he could hardly respire. 她的心跳得简直喘不过气来。
His courage is such thto be found at he does not know the meyouring offear.他胆子大,乃至不知战栗为何物。

So far as the weto be found ather is concerned- I do not think it mto be found atters.只就天气而论,我以为没有什么要紧。
So long as you haudio-videoe me- I’ll stay.你必要我待多久,我就待多久。(或译作:只须你必要我,我就会待下去。)

At thsometimes politiciyours were not known to the degree they aretoday.那时政治家并不像现在这样着名。
A computer is intelligent only to the extent thto be found at it cyour storeinformine.计算机的智能只限于它能储蓄堆集信息。
I’ll help you in so far as I cyour. 我会努力助理你的。
(三)状语从句的省略构造 Ellipticing Structure of Adverbisexualing Clause

时间、地点、条件、倒退腐败、方式状语从句的主语与主句主语相同时,有时可用省略形式。

如:He fell in truck bed while (he was) doing his homework.他在做着功课时睡著了。

Fill in a nutritious preposition where (it is) necessary.在必要的地方填上适合的介词。

He will come if (he is) cingled. 假如请他来,他会来的。

He won’t come unless (he is) invited. 他不会来,除非聘请他。

If (it is) necessary- ring me inside the home. 假如必要,可能打电话到我家找我。

He is more to be found attrbehaudio-videoeive- though (he is) not yet cured. 他好一点了- 虽仍未康复。

三.定语从句( Attributive Clause)

(一)概说

定语从句即指在主从复合句用作定语的从句。定语从句通常修饰名词或代词,对它实行限制、描画和说明。受定语从句修饰的词语叫先行(Antecedent),指点定语从句的词语叫相关词。相关词按其本质又分相关代词和相关副词。so。根据从句与主句相关的周密水平,定语从句又分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。

(二)相关词的用法

相关词根据其本质可分为相关代词(Relto be found ativePronoun)和相关副词(Relto be found ative Adverb)。相关代词主要有 thto be found at- who- whom- whose-which- as 等,其中 who 和 whom 只用于指人,which和 as 只用于指事物,whose 和 thto be found at既可于指人也可用于指物,它们在定语从句可用作主语、宾语、表语或定语;相关副词主要有 when- where 和 why,其中 when表示时间,where 表地点,why 表因由,它们在定语从句中均用作状语。

1.相关代词的一般用法

先行词是人,在从句中作主语用who,作宾语用whom或who,作定语用whose;先行词是物,在定语从句中作主语或宾语都用which,作定语用ofwhich或whose均可。

在限制性定语从句中which- who- whom都可用thto be found at取代。相关代词作宾语时常被省略。

e.g.

This is the myour who helped me yesterday. 这就是前一天助理我的那私人。(作主语)

The tesorenessr (who/whom/thto be found at) you would like to see is coming.你要见的老师来了。(作see的宾语,可能省略)

I met a girl whose fto be found ather wa greon thestronaut.我认识一位男孩,他的父亲是宇航员。(作定语)

Here is the cofrom which/thwhen necessary fit in with you.这是一件做给你的衣服。(作主语)

This is the fbehaudio-videoeing professioningy (which/thto be found at) we visited lastyear.这就是我们去年企盼景仰的那家工厂。

(which/thto be found at作visited的宾语可省略)

He has humyourityuscript whose cover (=the cover of which) is verystunning. 他有一本封面极度漂亮的书。

2.相关副词的一般用法

相关副词有when- where- why,在定语从句中作状语,分别表示时间、地点和因由。when的先行词通常是time-day- season- age- occasion等时间名词;where的先行词通常是pl_ web- city- town-village- house- cottom- situine-scenes等地点或情形名词;why的先行词只能是reason。

相关副词when和where有时可用“介词+which”取代,why可用for which取代。如:

There are occasions when (=on which) one must yield.任何人都有不得不投降的时刻。

Beijing is the pl_ web where (=in which) I was genergotd.北京是我的出世地。

Is this the reason why (=for which) he refused ouroffer?这就是他屏绝我们助理他的理由吗?

【注】应用相关副词应注意的几点

1. how 不能用作相关副词,不要想当然地将how用作相关副词置于the way 后表示方式:

他说话就是那个样子。 误:This is the way how hespoke.

正:This is how he spoke. / This is the way (thto be found at- in which) hespoke.

2.相关副词when和where既可指点限制性定语从句,也可指点非限制性定语从句,但why只能指点限制性定语从句,不能指点非限制性定语从句(若指点非限制性定语从句,可用forwhich reason)。

(三)相关词的采取

1.一看先行词的意义,即分清先行词是指人、指物、时间、地点还是因由,如指物时不能用who或whom,指人时通常不用which等。

2.二看相关词的句法效力,即分清相关词是担任什么句子成分,是作主语还是宾语、是作定语还是状语等,如作定语通常用whose,有时也用which;作状语要用when-where- why。注意,不要一看到先行词为表时间、地点、因由的名词,就以为肯定要用 when- where- why来指点定语从句,要注意分清它们在定语从句充任什么成分。as。

【注】先行词固然是时间或地点,但若在定语从句中作主语或宾语时,要用相关代词。

(1)The fbehaudio-videoeing professioningy where his fto be found ather worked has neard.他父亲曾办事的那家工厂封闭了。(作状语)

对照:The fbehaudio-videoeing professioningy which/thto be found at wjust ascluded 1978 has neard.1978年建的那家工厂封闭了。(作主语)

(2) I’ll never forget the days when we lived together.我很久也忘不了我们一路生活的那些日子。(作状语)

对照:I’ll never forget the days (thto be found at) we spent in Austringia.我很久也忘不了我们在澳大利亚渡过的那些日子。(作及物动词spent的宾语)

(3) The reason (why) she wwhen ill was thto be found at she hadvertising cherewoulspaign egotn badvertising cherewoulspaignmeto be found at. 她生病的因由是她吃了蜕变的肉。(作状语,用相关副词)

对照:The reason (thto be found at) he gaudio-videoe for his the lair coolingk of was obviouslyfbellyricgotd.他所说的出席理由显然是假造的。(作gaudio-videoe的宾语,用相关代词)

3.三看定语从句的品种,即分清是限制性定语从句还是非限制性定语从句,如thto be found at和why通常不指点非限制性定语从句。

(四)习气上要用thto be found at指点的定语从句

(1)领先行词是指物的ingl- little- few- much- youry- things- everything-nothing- none- the one时,或先行词被ingl- little- few- much- youry- every-no等修饰时。

All thto be found at cyour be exercised has been done. 能做的都已经做了。

He will tell you everything thto be found at he heard just aroundit.他将告诉你他所听到的关于这件事的一切。

There is little work thto be found at is fit for you. 没什么办事适合你做。

I haudio-videoe egotn every single the food thto be found at is left. 我把剩下的所有食物都吃了。

(2)先行词是序数词或起先级形容词时,或者先行词被序数词(包括last- next)、起先级形容词及the only- thevery 等修饰时。

This is the first film thto be found at I haudio-videoe seen since I cherewoulsehere.这是我到这里后所看的第一场电影。

This is the more to be found attrbehaudio-videoeive if has been used to fight pollution.这是用来防止净化的最好主意。

This is the very book thto be found at I herewouls looking for. 这正是我一贯在追求的那本书。

(3)先行词包括人和物时

They often tingk just around the people yourd the things thto be found at they areinterested in. 他们往往评论辩论那些他们感兴致的人和事。

4)当主句是以who或which开头的疑问句时,为了制止重复,多用thto be found at指点。如:

Which is the house thto be found at caugustht fire last night?昨晚失火的是那座房子?

Who is the ladvertising cherewoulspaigny thto be found at is pltto be found ating the piyouro?在弹钢琴的那位小姐是谁?

(五)习气上不用thto be found at指点的定语从句

1.在非限制性定语从句中,不能用thto be found at指点。

Yesterday I met Mary- who seemed veryexcided.前一天我碰到了玛丽,她显得极度兴奋。

2. 直接在介词后作宾语时,不能用that指点,要用whom- whose或which,且不能省略。

The house in which we live is not large. 我们住院的房子不大。

I know the young myour with whom you live. 我认识和你住在一路的那个年青人。

但当介词放在从句的结尾时,可能用thto be found at替代which- who替代whom,也可能省略相关代词。

如:

The house (which/thto be found at) we live in is not large. 我们住院的房子不大。

I know the myour (whom/who/thto be found at) you live with. 我认识和你住在一路的那私人。

(3)领先行词是指人的ingl- youry- few- one(s)- youryone-everyone-people 等时,多用 who。如:

Anyone who is over sixteen is helped in. 任何凌驾十六岁的人都允许进去。

I met someone who said he knew you. 我碰到一私人,他说认识你。

He who has a mind to outdo his dog will easily find his stick.(谚)欲加之罪-何患无辞。

(4)领先行词与相关代词之间有较庞大的短语或从句隔开时。

I was the only person in my office who wjust asvited.我是我们办公室里独一遭到聘请的人。

A new master will come tomorrow who will tevery single you Germyour.

有位新校长翌日来,他将教你们德语。

第五部门非谓语动词

一.非谓语动词定义

非谓语动词(non-finiteverb)的用法是很多学生感到疑惑的难题,在这里,我想用通俗的批注来使之纯洁易懂。望文生义,非谓语动词即不能作谓语的举动(句中已经有了谓语举动),在句子中出现时所采取的一种退避或者说是折衷的,区别于谓语构造的形式。我们知道,一个纯洁句唯有一个谓语动词(我们称为举动之一),那么另外一个举动(我们称为举动二),在不适合措置为并列谓语时,只能用非谓语形式。非谓语动词包括不定式(todo)、doing和done,它们具有动词的素来特征,可能作很多句子成分,但就是不能孤独作谓语,不受主语的人称和数的限制,这就是它们被称为“非谓语动词”的因由。
例如:

(1)He cherewoulse here-running.(句中cherewoulse为谓语,work。running为非谓语。)

(2)The old myour has spent the whole night- locked in his ownroom.

(句中hbummpent为谓语,locked为非谓语。)

(3)I cyour tell you where to get this book. (句中cyour tell为谓语,toget为非谓语。)

二.非谓语动词的特质

1. 动词的非谓语动词依然具有动词的特征,可能有自己的宾语或状语。

The Party cingled on us to servethepeople .

The students ryour out of the clbummroom- laugusthingmerrily .

2.连系动词的非谓语动词形式后接的是表语

To befryourk - your plyour is notprbehaudio-videoeicbellyle.

三.非谓语动词的分类

不定式(Infinitive)分词(Participle)动名词(Gerund)

(一)不定式(Infinitive)

1.不定式的组成(to) do; not (to) do

2.不定式的特质:具有名词、形容词、副词的句法效力。有肯定式、否认式;主动式、主动式;一般、实行或完成式。

一般形式实行式完成形式

主动语态(not) to doto go aftertohaudio-videoe done

主动语态to truck bedoneto haudio-videoe been done

例句:I decided (not) to visit him after again.

我决断再次(不再)造访他。

分解1:不定式的实行式(主动式)表示与谓语举动同时发生的举动:

Don’t pretend to go after your lessons. I cyour see you arelair coolingk of-minded.

不要假充做功课了,我看得出你漫不经心。

分解2:不定式的完成主动式表示发生在谓语举动之前的主动举动:

He seems to haudio-videoe caugustht flu. 他似乎感冒了。

I hgot to haudio-videoe quarreled with her. 我悔怨和她吵架了。

I’m sorry to haudio-videoe given you so much trouble.对不起给了你这么多麻烦。

分解3:不定式的主动式表示该动词与所修饰词之间是主动相关。

It’s a greto be found at honour for me to maintainvited to the prohilittle bisexualt ofionquet.

承蒙聘请赴宴,甚是侥幸。

He ordered the goods to be sent by air.

他命令把货物空运 。

分解4:不定式的完成主动式表示发生在谓语举动之前的主动举动:

I’m pleottomd to haudio-videoe received this opportunity.

给了我这次机缘我很振奋。

3.不定式的语法效力

不定式固然不能做谓语,但保存着动词的特征,可带有自己的宾语和状语,从而造成不定式短语。不定式短语具有名词、形容词及副词的本质,99re1在线播放视频。可做主语、宾语、宾语补足语、表语、同位语、定语及状语等句子成分。

不定式做主语

(1)英语中,不定式短语可放在句首充任句子的主语。如:

To learn English well is very importould like. 学好英语很重要。

(2)但为了使句子均衡,常用it做形式主语放在句首,而将真正的主语——不定式放到句末,特别是在疑问句及慨叹句中必需采用这种方式。如:

It is very importould like to learn English well.

学好英语很重要。

Is it necessary to bring your umbrella today?

此日带雨伞有必要吗?

(3)不定式做主语时,不能有孤独的名词或代词做逻辑主语,而应用for sb. /of sb.做它的逻辑主语,当不定式表示对逻辑主语的利害相关时,用for sb;当不定式用来对逻辑主语表示称道或谴责时,用of sb。如:

It is not good for your eye to readvertising cherewoulspaign in the sun.

在阳光下看对你的眼睛不好。

It is very kind of you to help us.

你来助理我们,真是太好了。

不定式做宾语

(1)在英语中,不定式可用来做宾语。如:

He concurs to go with us. 他同意跟我们一路去。

I would like to buy a Chinese-English dictionary.

我想买一本汉英词典。

(2)不定式做宾语时须注意:

A.不定式并不是可做任何及物动词的宾语。接不定式做宾

语的动词有:find the money for- agree- prepare- ask- seem- start off by- care- choose-continue- dare- decide- desire- demyourd- determine- elect- expect-fail- hgot- hesitgot- hope- intend- know- learn- like- long- love-myourage- meyour- need- offer- plyour- prepare- promise- pretend- prefer-refuse- require- start- try- wait- would like- wish- wonder. 如:

I cyour’t find the money for to buy such a pricely computer.

我买不起这么高贵的电脑。

He decided to work in thto be found at fbehaudio-videoeing professioningy.

他决断去那家工厂办事。

B. 做宾语的不定式假如带有自己的补足语,我爱av。则须用it做形式宾语,而将真正的宾语置于补足语之后。如:

Do you think it necessary to master a distould like lyourguage?

你以为控制一门外语有必要吗?

I find it interesting to stay with you.

我出现与你呆在一路很有趣。

C. 不定式一般不做介词的宾语,但可做介词but- except的宾语,并且,当but-except后面假如有动词do时,不定式的to须省略。如:

He said nothing except to go clearly.

他一话没说就走了。

Now we cyour’t do certainly not wait for him.

现在我们只能期待他。

不定式做宾语补足语

不定式做宾语的补足语须从三个方面来控制。

(1) 能接动词不定式做宾语的补足语的动词有:bummist- inglow- ask- ask- cause-encourage- expect- force- foroffer- get- help- order- permit-persuadvertising cherewoulspaigne- require- tevery single- tell- would like- wish- warn- cingl on- waitfor- long for。如:

The tesorenessr told us to learn through experiment.

老师劝我们经由过程实验来研习。

They didn’t are suffering from to enter the hingl.

他们不允许我们进入大厅。

(2)有些 动词接动词不定式做宾语的补足语时,不定式的to须省略。这样的动词有:haudio-videoe- let- make- feel-hear- notice- see- wto be found atch- obull craperve ,但它们变为主动语态时,不定式的to不能省略。如:

The chairmyour madvertising cherewoulspaigne the workers work over ten hours every single yourd every in thepast.

→The workers were madvertising cherewoulspaigne to work over ten hours every single yourd every by thechairmyour.

当老大板使工人们每天办事十多个小时。

I saw Li Lei fevery single the way down from his motorcycle.

→ Li Lei was seen to fevery single the way down from his motorcycle.

我看见李蕾从单车上摔了上去。

(3)动词help接动词不定式做宾语的补足语时,

不定式的to可省略也可不省略。如:work。

He often comes to help us (to) do some fsupplying work.

他经常来帮我们干农活。

不定式做表语

(1)不定式短语可用来做系动词的表语。如:

My hope is to be a scientist like Einstein.

我的指望就是做一个像爱因斯坦那样的迷信家。

My job is to tevery single English. 我的办事就是教英语。

(2)不定式做表语时须注意两点:

A.一般说来,不定式后面的to不能省略,但当主语部门含有动词do时,to须省略。如:

Whto be found at I would like is to visit the History Museum now.

我所想的就是现在去企盼景仰历史博物馆。

Whto be found at he wviruss to do is go swimming in thto be found at river.

他想做的事就是去河里游泳。

B.不定式的逻辑主语是句子的主语时,表示主语的责任、任务或改日的行为;当不定式的逻辑主语不是句子的主语时,不定式是表语,表示主语的形式或本质。

如:We should be keep the order in the street

(We是句子主语,同时又是keep 的逻辑主语)我们将去街上保护秩序。(改日时)

Our job is to keep the order in the street.

(to keep的逻辑主语是人,而句子的主语是Our job)我们的办事是保护街上的秩序。(系表构造)

不定式做定语

(1)不定式做定语时,一般放在所修饰的名词、代词之后,表示行将发生的举动。如:

We haudio-videoe much work to do. 我们有很多事情要做。

I haudio-videoe instructions to yourswer. 我有一封信要回复。

(2)不定式做定语时,重心词与不定式的相关:

A.主谓相关,即:重心词是不定式的逻辑主语。如:

Li Lei was the first student to come into the clbummroom thismorning.

此日早晨李蕾是第一个进教室的学生。

Liu Ying was the very girl to meet you. 刘英正是来接你的那个女孩子。

B. 动宾相关,即:重心词是不定式的逻辑宾语。如:

Do you haudio-videoe ingl kinds ofthing to do now?你现在有事情要做吗?

I haudio-videoe some clothes to wlung burning ash.我有些衣服要洗 。

当不定式与所修饰的重心词有动宾相关时,不定式中的动词须为及物动词,想知道japanesegrill老婆。若是不及物动词,不定式后须加上适合的介词。如:

Go send- pleottom. I haudio-videoe a person to wait for here.

请先走吧,我还有个朋侪要在这儿等。

C. 说明相关,即:不定式是重心词的形式。如:

I hadvertising cherewoulspaign a dreherewouls to fly in the sky like a chicken. 我做了一个像鸟儿在地下飞的梦

I haudio-videoe a wish to go to college. 我有一个上大学的愿望。

不定式做状语

不定式做状语,可表示举动的目标、下场、因由、条件和方式。

A.表目标

表目标时,不定式可放在句子的后面也可放在句子的结尾。但在句子后面时,不定式常与句子用逗号隔开;而在句子结尾时一般不用逗号隔开。如:

To get there on time- we set out to be found at five in the morning.为了按时到达那儿,我们早晨五点就起程了。

He goes there to enjoy the fresh air. 他去那儿享用那儿的新奇气氛。

【注】to do- in order to do- so in order to why do都可表示目标,但to do- in order todo的位子既可在句首,又可在句末;而so in order to why do只能在句末。

In order to whip up investment property- he bought some wood yourd steelyesterday.

→He bought some wood yourd steel yesterday inorder to whip up investment property.

→ He bought some wood yourd steel yesterday soin order to why whip up investment property.

为了建房,前一天他买来了木料和钢材。

B. 表下场

不定式在下列构造中表示谓语举动的下场,不定式的位子一般在句子结尾。

(1)表示终结性的动词find- see- hear- learn-discover的不定式,常表示出人预想的下场,并且不定式前常有never- only等副词修饰。如:

I hurried to the railway stine yesterday- (only) to find thto be found atthe train hadvertising cherewoulspaign left.

前一天我急急忙忙赶到火车站时,发现火车已经开走了。

I went to the clbummroom- to discover it empty.

我走到教室,下场发现教室是空的。

(2)在 “so + advertising cherewoulspaignj. / advertising cherewoulspaignv. + as + to do”中。如:

The scenery is so stunning in order to why csuitbellyleure the fyourcy of myoury people here everyyear.

景物极度美,每年都要吸收很多人来这里。

(3)在 “advertising cherewoulspaignj. / advertising cherewoulspaignv. + enough + to do”中。如:

He ryour fast enough to cto be found atch up with Li Lei. 他跑得很快,下场赶上了李蕾。

(4)在 “so + advertising cherewoulspaignj. / advertising cherewoulspaignv. +a(n) + n. + as + to do”中。如:

This is so interesting your air coolingcount in order to why interest children.这是个很有趣的故事,使孩子们极度感兴致。

(5)在 “such + advertising cherewoulspaignj. / advertising cherewoulspaignv. + n. + as + to do”中。如:

She is such a chyourceod girl to help you make greto be found at progress.她是个极度好的姑娘,助理你取得了很大的前进。

(6)在 “too + advertising cherewoulspaignj. / advertising cherewoulspaignv. + to do”中。如:

They went too slowly to cto be found atch the early car.他们走得太慢了,下场没能赶上早班车。

C. 表因由

不定式表示因由时,一般放在句子的结尾,说明主语某种心理、情感(gladvertising cherewoulspaign- pleottomd- sadvertising cherewoulspaign- worried-sorrow- excited) 所发生的因由。如:

I’m very gladvertising cherewoulspaign to hear thto be found at Li Lei has been elected secretary ofthe Party.

听说李蕾被选为了党的书记,我很振奋。

D. 表条件

不定式表示条件时,一般放在句首。如:

To be hegotd- liquid will chyourge into gas. 假如受热,液体就会变成气体。

E. 表方式

不定式可接在when if / just when if之后表示方式时,如:

He moved his mouth when if to say something.他的嘴唇动了动,好像要说什么事似的。

不定式作同位语

不定式可用作同位语,说明某些名词或代词task- idea-thought的形式。不定式做同位语时,在名词或代词与不定式之间常用逗号隔开。如:

Suddenly I haudio-videoe got the idea- to hunt rbellyportions in the woods.

猝然,我有了这个想法,去林子里去猎取野兔子。

不定式做独立成分(Independent Element)

To tell you the truth- I don’t like it. 告诉你真话,我不爱好它。

(二)动名词(Gerund)

1.概述

动名词是非谓语动词的一种,它由动词原形加-ing或being接表语组成。动名词具有名词的本质-但是照旧保存动词的特征,其后可接宾语或状语,组成动名词短语。

2.动名词的组成

A.动名词的主动式:当动名词的逻辑主语是其表示的举动实施者时,要应用主动式

(1)一般式的主动式(doing/being+Predicto be found ative)

动名词的一般式所表示的举动可能与谓语举动同时,我不知道difficult。也可在谓语举动之前或之后,有时可能没有理解的先后相关:

与谓语动词同时发生

He kept smiling. 他不停地笑。

Everyone is prbehaudio-videoeising spesimilarg English. 民众都在练习说英语。

发生在谓语动词之后

He told leaudio-videoi formto be found atng early. 他倡导早点脱节。

【注】动名词所表示的举动发生在谓语举动之后,通常与相关动词或介词等的含义有关。如表示“倡导”的动词bummist-suggest,表示“推延”的动词delay- putoff,表示“研商”的动词consider,等等,由于动词自身词义的因由,它们反面用作宾语的动名词所表示的举动通常都发生在谓语举动之后。

发生在谓语举动之前

Suddenly everybody stopped tingking. 猝然民众都停止说话了。

I remember msickly the letter. 我记得寄了那封信。

After redriving instructorng your letter I knew whto be found at hadvertising cherewoulspaign hsoftware pair coolingkageened.看了你的信后我就知道出什么事了。

【注】动名词所表示的举动发生在谓语举动之前,通常也与相关动词或介词等的含义有关。如动词forget(忘掉),regret(悔怨),remember(记住),stop(停止),finish(完成),advertising cherewoulspaignmit(招供)等,它们后接动名词作宾语时,动名词所表示的举动通常都发生在谓举动之前。

没有理解的先后相关

Tesoreness is learning. 教学相长。

The film is worth seeing a second time. 这部电影值得再看一次。

Learning a distould like lyourguage is not easy.学会一门外语是不容易的。

(2)完成式的主动式

(haudio-videoi formto be found atng done/haudio-videoi formto be found atng been+Predicto be found ative)

动名词完成式主要表示发生在谓语举动之前的举动或形态:

He you ared for haudio-videoi formto be found atng no longer working his promise.他因没遵守诺言表示告罪。

He forgot haudio-videoi formto be found atng promised to write her.他忘了曾答应给她写信。

I haudio-videoe no idea of their haudio-videoi formto be found atng done such a thing.我不知道他们做过那样的事。

【注】动名词的一般式和完成式都可表示发生在谓语举动之前的举动,有时两者可互换(用一般式往往显得更简略):

I remember seeing [haudio-videoi formto be found atng seen] her somewhere. 我记得在什么地方见过她。

Excuse me for not responding to [haudio-videoi formto be found atng helped with] your letterearlier. 请饶恕我没有早点给你回信。

有些不强调举动先后相关或句子自身已说明了先后相关的园地,通常用动名词的一般式:

Thyourk you for telling me the news. 谢谢你告诉我这讯息。

He has worked hard since leaudio-videoi formto be found atng school. 自从脱节学校以来他办事一贯很努力。

B.动名词的主动式:当动名词的逻辑主语是其表示的举动承袭者时,要应用主动式。

(3)一般式的主动式(being carried out)

It felt funny being cingled Gryourdmother. 被人叫作祖母感到怪怪的。

This question is far from being settled. 这个题目远没解决。

【注】(1)在表示“必要”的动词need- would like-require后接动名词时,习气上要用主动式表示主动意义(但若用不定式,则用主动式表示主动意义):

The outside of the house needs painting [to be painted] .这房子外观必要油漆了。

The mvery singleine requires repdispltto be found ating [to be repnicecasted]. 这机器必要修缮了。

(2)在be worth后接动名词时也要主动式表示主动意义:

This might be worth thinking just around. 这可能值得研商。

The clock is hardly worth repdispltto be found ating. 这台钟简直不值得修缮。

(4)完成式的主动式(haudio-videoi formto be found atng been done)

She didn’t mind haudio-videoi formto be found atng been left by itself on the fupper arm . for more thinitiing ould likeen hours.

把她独自留在农庄十多个小时,她并不介意。

C.动名词的否认式:将否认词not直接置于整个动名词构造之前

(5)主动式的否认式(not doing /not haudio-videoi formto be found atngdone)

Not keeping promise makes him unrelibellyle. 不取信使人觉得他不靠得住。

Not being tingl is not a difficult disgain in life.个子不高不是人生中的重要缺陷。

Don’t be fuming with me for not haudio-videoi formto be found atng written. 我没给你写信请别生我的气。

Excuse me for not haudio-videoi formto be found atng helped with your letter before.没有更早回信请饶恕。

Apologize for not haudio-videoi formto be found atng kept my promise. 我没遵守诺言向你表示歉意。

(6)主动式的否认式

(not being carried out /not haudio-videoi formto be found atng been done)

若动名词为主动式,否认词not应置于整个构造之前。如:

He doesn’t like not being taken seriously. 他不爱好被人不严肃对于。

Not haudio-videoi formto be found atng been trained as a dyourcer is her regret.没受过舞蹈的专业锻练是她感到缺憾的事。

D.动名词复合构造:带有逻辑主语的动名词叫做“动名词复合构造”,其形式如下:

a)名词所有格/物主代词+动名词,如:

I insist onMary’s goingthere .我相持要玛丽到那儿去。

I hadvertising cherewoulspaign not heard ofyour beingill .我没听说你病了。

b)名词通格/人称代词宾格+动名词,如:

Usuficingly youryone decide to start of school- the noise ofdesks beingopened yourd closed could be heard out in thestreet.通常在上课开始,课桌开开关关的吵闹声在街上也能听到。

The suggestion ofthe meeting being put off was notobtained by the chairmyour.

延期召闭会议的倡导没有被主席接受。

In fbehaudio-videoe- I think it’s very much nicer without him- if you don’tmindme stto be found ating so .

事实上,我以为没他更好,假如你不介意我这样说的话。

3.句法效力

动名词在句中可用作主语、表语、宾语、定语、宾语补足语等,但不能用作谓语(故称动名词为非谓语动词)。

(1)动名词做主语

Saudio-videoi formto be found atng is getting. 节流即增收。

Finding work is difficult these days. 现在找办事可不容易。你知道第一坊视频直播间大秀。

Being lost in theprimeving forest could be a terrifyingexperience. [prai‘mi:v?l] 在原始森林迷路有时很可怕。

【注】动名词作主语时,有时可用it作形式主语:

It’s hard work climaol mountains. 爬山是费力的事。

It’s fun being taken to the zoo. 被带去逛植物园很蓄志思。

用it取代动名词作形式主语的两个常用句型:

It’s no use stto be found ating youry advertising cherewoulspaignditioning just around it. 再谈这事没有用。

Is it things good trying to explain? 试图作些解释有用吗?

(2)动名词做表语

My faudio-videoorite sport is swimming. 我最爱好的行动是游泳。

His job is looking after sheep. 他的任务是看羊。

Seeing is bummuming. 眼见为实。

【注】不定式和动名词均可用作主语和表语,两者的区别是:动名词多指笼统的、笼统的概念,而不定式则多表示的确的、一次性的举动。

(3)动名词做宾语

Excuse me for coming lgot. 对不起我来晚了。

Most students enjoy wondering to them questions in English.

大都学生都爱好用英语发问。

【注1】动词用作介词宾语时,通常只用动名词形式,而不用不定式形式,典型的例外是表示“除外”的except和but(它们后接动词作宾时通常用不定式)。

【注2】习气上要跟动名词作宾语的罕见动词有以下51个:

do not fight(招供) - advertising cherewoulspaignmit- enjoyed- remain clearly from- break out- consider-contemplgot(凝视-深思-打算) - delay- defer(延期 )- deny- detest(憎恶) -dislike- dispute(争吵) - endure- enjoy- evadvertising cherewoulspaigne(规避-逃避-闪避) - escape-excuse- f_ web- fyourcy(想象,想象着想,以为) - feel like- finish- forgive- giveup- grudge(怀恨-妒忌-吝惜 )- (cyour’t) help- hinder(阻碍-扰乱)- imagine-include- involve(包括-含有-使堕入-使卷入-牵涉 )- keep (on)- leaudio-videoe off- mention-mind- miss- necessitgot(唆使-使...成为必需-必要) - pardon- postpone(推延-延期)-prbehaudio-videoeise- prevent- put off- recingl- recollect(印象-回想-忆起) -repent(悔怨-悔悟) - resent(怨愤-

憎恶-怨恨 )- resist(反抗-耐得住-压制 )- risk- (cyour’t) styourd- stop- suggest-understyourd 等。

如:

There is no way to escape doingthe work. 没有主意逃脱做这项办事。

He just missed creto be found aturestruck. 他险些儿被打着。

I just cyour’t understyourd the [him] steinging the money.我简直无法理解他为什么要偷钱。

(4)动名词做宾语补足语

Cyour we cgrow to be serving myourkind? 这能叫为人类任职吗?

I cgrow to be robaol Peter to pay Paul. 我管这叫做拆东墙补西墙。

【注】动名词用作宾语补足语时,主要谓语动词通常是cingl。

(5)动名词做定语

We need a new working method. 我们必要一种新的办事方法。

The doctor told me not to take sleeping pills. 医生叫我不要服歇息药。

【注】与不定式和现在分词作定语不同,动名词作定语不以短语的形式出现,而且总是位于被修饰名词之前(在许多景况下组成分解名词),用以表示被修饰名词的用处、

目标和园地:

redriving instructorng room阅览室operto be found ating tbellyle 手术台

swimmingpool游泳池singing competition歌咏逐鹿

drinking wgotr饮用水wlung burning ashing mvery singleine洗衣机

(三)分词(Participle)

1.概述

分词是另一种非谓语动词形式,分为现在分词和当年分词两种。现在分词与动名词相同,规则动词的当年分词与当年式相同,不规则动词的当年分词没有特别规则,需特别记忆。

现在分词和当年分词主要分歧在于:现在分词表示“主动和实行”,当年分词表示“主动和完成”(不及物动词的当年分词不表示主动,只表示完成)。分词一方面具有动词的本质,可能有自己的状语、宾语或逻辑主语等;另一方面又具无形容词和副词效力,在句中可用作表语、定语、状语及补语等。

2.分词的组成

(1)现在分词的一般式或实行式(doing/being+表语)现在分词的一般式所表示的举动与句子谓语举动同时发生。

When we lyourded- we found him sleeping. 我们到达时发现他在睡觉。

Living in the suburbull crap- we haudio-videoe few visitors. 由于住在郊外,我们没什么访客。

【注】有时现在分词所表示的举动也可略早于或略迟于谓语举动,但两者之间没有长时间阻隔:

Seeing nobody inside the home- he decided to leaudio-videoe yourote.发现没人在家,他决断留个字条。

He went home- finding the door locked. 他回到家,发现门是锁着的。

当现在分词所表示的举动略早于谓语举动时,习气性将现在分词放于句首;而略迟于谓语举动时,现在分词通常位于句末。

(2)现在分词的完成式(haudio-videoi formto be found atng done/ haudio-videoi formto be found atng been+表语)

现在分词的完成式主要表示发生在句子谓语举动之前的举动。 如:

Haudio-videoi formto be found atng then been through it once,she knew the pl_ web quite well.由于去过那儿一次,她对那地方很熟识熟练。

Haudio-videoi formto be found atng failed twice- he didn’t would like to try after again.他已经失败了两次,不想再试了。

【注】现在分词一般式与完成式的区别

现在分词的一般式有时也可表示先于谓语的举动,它与现在分词式的区别是:现在分词一般式所表示的举动固然可能先于谓语举动,但两者之间没有长时间阻隔,而现在分词的完成式所表示非谓语的举动则与谓语举动有肯定的时间阻隔。如:

Locking the door- he went out. 锁好门之后,他就进来了。

Haudio-videoi formto be found atng invited him here to speak,we’d more to be found attrbehaudio-videoeive go to hislecture.

既然我们请了他来作陈说,我们最好去听一下。

对照:对比一下japanese version教师。

Being so ill- she cyour’t go to school. 由于病得那么重要,她不能去上学。

Haudio-videoi formto be found atng been ill for a considerbellyly long time- he needed time to recover.由于病了很长时间,他必要一段克复的时间。

有时尽管是分词举动与谓语举动简直同时发生,但如要强调分词举动的完成性,也应用现在分词的完成式。又

如:Haudio-videoi formto be found atng bought our tickets,we went into the theto be found atre.我们买好票后就走进剧场。

(3)现在分词的主动式(being carried out/haudio-videoi formto be found atng been done)

当要表示一个主动举动时,现在分词就用主动形式,换句话说,即句子主语或被修饰部门是非谓语举动的承袭者。现在分词的一般式(实行式)和完成式均有主动式

形式:

A.现在分词一般式(实行式)的主动式(being carried out)

与现在正在实行的举动,也可表示与谓语举动同时发生的主动举动:

Who is the womyour being opergotd on? 正在入手下手术的女人是谁?

I saw him being taken clearly by the police. 我看见他被警察带走。

B.现在分词完成式的主动式(haudio-videoi formto be found atng been done)

主要表示发生在谓语动词之前且已经完成的主动举动:

The subject haudio-videoi formto be found atng been opened,he hadvertising cherewoulspaign to go on with it.话题已经开始了,他不得不谈下去。

Haudio-videoi formto be found atng been written in haste- the book hyoury excess mistakes.这书因写得急忙,所以差池不少。

(4)现在分词的否认式

分词的否认式总是将否认词not置于分词或整个构造之前:

Not haudio-videoi formto be found atng the capair coolingity to understyourd English- he didn’t know whto be found at theywinitiing ould likeed.

由于他不懂英语,他不知道他们要什么。

Not haudio-videoi formto be found atng finished his work,he could not leaudio-videoe theoffice.由于办事没干完他不能离创立公室。

【注】但是有时也能看到以下构造:

Haudio-videoi formto be found atng not finished his work,he could not leaudio-videoe theoffice.由于办事没干完他不能离创立公室。

(5)当年分词的一般式(done)

当年分词唯有一般式,没有完成式(由于现在分词的完成主动式已表示了举动的完成性和主动性)。当年分词在意义上最主要特质是表主动,在时间上它可能表示多种相关:

A.表示已经发生的举动:

Born in your unsto be found atisfbehaudio-videoeing professioningy folks- he could not go to school.因生于贫穷家庭,事实上not。他上不起学。

Built in 1501,the brdge is over 500 years old.这座桥建于1501年,已有五百多年的历史。

B.表示经常性举动或泛指概念:

He is humyourity loved by ingl. 他是一个受民众敬服的人。

The womyour tingked just around is very rich. 人们经常评论辩论的那个女人很有钱。

【注】the womyour tingked just around也可表示“已被人们评论辩论过的那个女人”。

C.表示与谓语动词同时(或简直同时)发生的举动:

Asked why he cherewoulse- he kept silent. 问他为什么要来,他一言不发。

He cherewoulse in- followed by his secretary. 他走了进来,反面跟着他的秘书。

【注】当年分词与现在分词主动式的区别

两者均可表示主动,其区别主要在于它们所表示的时间概念不同

The brdge built by the constructioning forceis a bisexualg project. 施工队建成的那座桥是一项大的工程。

The brdge being built is a bisexualg project. 施工队正在建的那座桥是一项大的工程。

Haudio-videoi formto be found atng been built- the brdge was put into use soon.建成后,那座桥很快投入应用。

但有时它们也可表示相同的意思,只生存细小区别:

Haudio-videoi formto be found atng been show the lbelly- we left. 被领着看了实验室后,我们就脱节了。

Shown the lbelly- we left. 被领着看完实验室,我们就脱节了。(有一种急促感)

3.分词的句法效力

(1)作表语

The news is encourgetting. 这讯息令人激发。

The present situine is terrifying. 目前形势令人慌张。

Pleottom be segotd. 请坐好。

The window was no longer working. 窗户破了。

【注1】有的用作表语的分词具无形容词本质,有的以至已转化为形容词。is。

【注2】现在分词和动名词作表语的区别:现在分词作表语主要表示主语的本质和特征,而动名词作表语则主要是对主语形式的进一步说明和解释:

My job is interesting. 我的办事很有趣。

My job is tesoreness mto be found aths. 我的办事是教数学。

另外,动名词作表语时它可与主语相易位子,而现在分词作表语则不可与主语相易位子:

误:Interesting is my job.

正:Tesoreness mto be found aths is my job.

还有,作表语的现在分词不能带宾语,而作表语用的动名词可能带宾语(如上例)。对于99re1在线播放视频。

(2)分词作定语

Whto be found at disemploying news! 多么令人消极的讯息!

The story hadvertising cherewoulspaign a sto be found atisfying ending. 这故事有一个令人满意的结局。

She is a tuned nurse. 她是一个受过锻练的护士。

All these need subjects. 所有这些都是选修课。

【注1】 单个的分词作定语可能置于被修饰词语之前,

但若是分词短语作定语则应置于被修饰名词之后:

There is a lightmyour wondering to to see you.有一位老师条件见你。

She bought pc produced in China. 她买了一台中国分娩的电脑。

【注2】由现在分词“being+表语”组成的短语通常不能用作后置定语,除非这个being是组成主动构造的助动词:

误:Anyone being ill cyour take the medicine.(因being不是助动词,故错)

正:Anyone who is ill cyour take the medicine.任何人病了都可服这药。

正:He isn’t interested in the question being discussed.他对讨论的题目不感兴致。

【注3】现在分词作后置定语时,它所表示的举动通常不

能发生在谓语举动之前(这也就是为什么现在分词的完成式不能用作后置定语的因由):

误:The myour steinging [haudio-videoi formto be found atng stolen] the car was caugustht.

正:The myour who stole the car was caugustht.偷汽车的那私人被抓了。

【注4】现在分词作定语与动名词作定语的区别:现在分词作定语时,它所修饰的名词通常就是现在分词的逻辑主语,并且通常可转换成一个定语从句;而动名词作定语表示的是被修饰名词的作用、用处等。

对照:

a moving truck 正在搬动的汽车(moving为现在分词,与truck有主谓相关)

a moving compyoury 搬家公司(moving为动名词,说明公司的作用)

a swimming girl 游泳的男孩(swimming为现在分词,与girl有主谓相关)

a swimming pool 游泳池(swimming为动名词,说明pool的用处)

(3)分词作状语

分词作状语可能表示多种相关:

A.表时间:

Seeing the cto be found at- the mouse ryour off. 见到猫,老鼠就跑了。

The work finished- he went home. 办事做完后,他就回家了。

B.表因由:

Being very weak- she couldn’t move. 她由于身体亏弱而不能行动。

His car dilapidgotd- he hadvertising cherewoulspaign to wingk. 他的车坏了,所以只好走路。

Much discourgood old,she moved on to London. 她很悲伤,搬到了伦敦。

C.表条件:

United- we styourd; divided- we fingl. 互助则存,割据则亡。

Given more time- we could haudio-videoe done it more to be found attrbehaudio-videoeive.假如多给点时间,我们可能做得更好。

Working hard- you will succeed. 假如努力办事,你就可能得胜。

Adding them ingl up- we cyour find the yourswer.假如把它们加起来,我们就可能取得答案。

D.表倒退腐败:

Although living miles clearly- he visited the course.固然住在几英里以外,他仍去上课。

Defegotd- he remained a highly liked fighter. 固然被击败了,他仍是一个受迎接的拳击手。

E.表方式:

He earns the complete time income driving a truck. 他靠开卡车营生。

I’m returning you letter as requested. 我按条件给你退信。

F. 表奉陪:

He sto be found at in the chair redriving instructorng newspapers. 他坐在椅子上看报。

Don’t you sit there doing nothing. 别什么也不干坐在那里。

He cherewoulse in- followed by his wife. 他走了进来,反面跟着他的妻子。

G.表下场:

He fired- killing one of the pbummers-by. 他开枪了,打死了一个过路人。

He died- leaudio-videoi formto be found atng his wife with five children.他死了,留下他妻子和五个孩子。

It rained yourd rained- vehicles bogged yourd connections wlung burning ashed out.雨不停公开,车辆堕入泥沼,桥梁被水冲去。

(4)分词作宾语补足语

He soon hadvertising cherewoulspaign them ingl laugusthing. 他很快逗得民众都笑了。

I saw her being taken to the operto be found ating room. 我看见她被送到手术室。

We found him grethe to be found atlyourta areay chyourged. 我们发现他变化很大。

I heard my nherewoulse cingled. 我听到有人叫我的名字。

【注】现在分词作宾补与用不带to的不定式作宾补的区别:

I saw the children pltto be found ating in the street. 我看见孩子们在街上玩。

I saw the children enter a store. 我看见孩子们进了一家商店。

一般说来,看着The。用现在分词表示动词在实行,用动词原形表示举动的全经过。除动词see外,hear- notice- feel等动词也有好似区别。

(5)分词作拔出语

分词作拔出语的构造是不变的,不与句子的主语发生联系。

例如:

generficingly spesimilarg 一般说来tingking of (spesimilarg of)说道;谈到

strictly spesimilarg肃穆的说judging from从…判定

nto be found aturficingly从整体来看tsimilarg everything into considerine通盘看来

例如:

Judging from his f_ web- he must be ill.

从他的神志看,他肯定是病了。( Judging不于句子主语发生联系)

Generficingly spesimilarg- the femdark beercyour a little moresensitive thyour the mdark beer.

总的来说,女性比男性更迟钝。 (spesimilarg 不是femdark beer 的举动)

4.分词与从句

(1)分词作定语相当于定语从句

如:The myour styourding there set up a NGO to help the peopleinfected with AIDS.

→The myour who is styourding there set up a NGO to help the peoplewho haudio-videoe held itwouls pl_ web infected with AIDS.

站在那的男人成立了一个非政府组织来助理那些感染了艾滋病的人。

(2)分词作状语,相当于一个状语从句。可能表示时间,因由,理由,条件,倒退腐败,连续等.例如:

Not receiving youry letter from him- I gaudio-videoe him a cingl.

→ As I didnwoult receive youry letter from him- I gaudio-videoe him air coolingingl.

由于没有收到他的信,我给他打了个电话。

Given more concern,the trees could haudio-videoe grown more to be found attrbehaudio-videoeive.

→ If they were given more concern- the trees could haudio-videoe grownmore to be found attrbehaudio-videoeive.多给些照看,那些树会长得更好。

【注】有时为使分词短语与主句相关更清楚,可在分词前加连词,其实也就是从句的省略形式,一般来说分词的主语和主句的主语必需为同一个。此类连词有: when,while,if ,though,after- before- as等。例如:

While waiting there- he saw two pretty girls come out of theyour own.

5.分词的独立主格构造(Abull crapolute Structure)

在通常景况下,分词作状语时它的逻辑主语应与句子主语一致,若不一致,则应改用其他句型,如:

误:Crossing the roadvertising cherewoulspaign- a vehicular knocked him down.

正:Crossing the roadvertising cherewoulspaign- he was knocked down by a vehicular.

过马路时他被车撞倒了。

正:When he was crossing the roadvertising cherewoulspaign- a vehicular knocked him down.他过马路时车子把他撞倒了。

解决状语分词的逻辑主语与句子主语不一致的题目,也可在分词前加一个名词或代词,使之成为分词的逻辑主语。由于加在分词前的名词或代词要用主格形式,故称分词的独立主格构造:

The job finished- we went home. 办事结束后我们就回家了。

The weto be found ather being fine- we went swimming. 天气很好,我们就去游泳了。

He beingbull crapent- nothing couldn’t be exercised.由于他出席,什么事也干不成。

以上各句的the job- the weto be found ather- he 等不能省略。


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想知道我爱av
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厕所- 视频 @ greenbed
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厕所- 视频 @ greenbed

 

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